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evidence of flea allergy dermatitis in naturally infested dogs.
The trend of increasing flea and tick populations and a greater risk of infections will likely continue for the next several decades. Mite infestations will similarly remain a common issue for pets. Because fleas, ticks, and some mites also create a zoonotic health risk, controlling these ectoparasites effectively has important One Health implications. Incorporating isoxazolines into routine parasite control programs for dogs brings with it the benefits of long-lived flea control, effective tick control, reduced transmission of some tick-borne infections,
and the added benefit of treating or preventing mite infestations. Limiting these infestations improves the lives of animals and of people, protecting the human–animal bond and ensuring that pets remain close members of their human families.
1. Halos L, Beugnet F, Cardoso L, et al. Flea control failure? Myths and realities. Trends Parasitol. 2014;30:228-33.
2. Herndon A, Little SE. Complications of severe tick infestation. Clin Brief. 2015 Apr;4:19-21.
3. Blagburn BL, Dryden MW. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009 Nov;39(6):1173-200.
4. Honsberger NA, Six RH, Heinz TJ, et al. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2016 May 30;222:67-72.
5. Six RH, Becskei C, Mazaleski MM, et al. Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp. and Otodectes cynotis. Vet Parasitol. 2016 May 30;222:62-6.
6. Becskei C, De Bock F, Illambas J, et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (SimparicaTM), for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2016 May 30;222:56-61.
7. Geurden T, Six R, Becskei C, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica®) in the prevention of babesiosis in dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:415.
L. Smart1
1Murdoch University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch, Australia
Acute gastric distension is a common cause of abdominal pain in emergency medicine, though it
can sometimes be difficult to appreciate on physical examination. Findings on abdominal radiographs may also, at times, be ambiguous. This talk will cover the approach to common causes of acute gastric distension; including gaseous gastric dilation (GD), gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV), food engorgement and fluid distension.
Gaseous distension
Gas dilation of the stomach typically falls into two different categories; gaseous dilation related to the syndrome of GDV and gas distension secondary to aerophagia. Aerophagia, secondary to respiratory distress, usually only causes mild distension. However, sometimes the gaseous distension can impede caudal displacement of the diaphragm and reduce tidal volume, contributing to respiratory distress. In these patients, decompressing the stomach may relieve some of the respiratory distress. Often these patients have such severe respiratory distress that sedation and intubation is imminent. If the patient is already anaesthetized, then it is prudent to decompress the stomach via orogastric intubation (OGI) if distension is evident. If the patient is conscious, then careful nasogastric intubation (NGI) can be attempted, however the procedure must be aborted if it starts to compromise the patient. Gastric trocarisation is not usually indicated in these patients as the distension is not typically severe or compromising perfusion, and it carries the risk of trauma to abdominal organs.
Gaseous gastric dilation, or dilatation, in a large breed, deep chested dog is a problem that is inevitably situated on the continuum to GDV. Typical history is similar to GDV and includes acute retching, hypersalivation, a distended abdomen and agitation. These signs often occur in the early morning or evening, related to
meal times. Physical examination findings are often similar to that of a GDV in the early stages, which
are predominantly tachycardia, abdominal pain and tympanic abdominal distension. Some dogs do not have obvious tympanic abdominal distension due to their stomach being mostly under the rib cage. Any signs
of vasoconstrictive shock (pale mucous membranes, decreased pulse amplitude, delayed capillary refill time, cool extremities) usually indicate that volvulus is present, but can still occur with severe gaseous dilation. Some
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