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Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
M. Glyde1
1BVSc MACVSc MVS HDipUTL Diplomate ECVS, College of Veterinary Medicine. Murdoch University
Learning Objectives
At the end of this session, which will focus on canine lameness, you will be able to:
· recognise a shift in stance and how this identifies the site of lameness
· identify a positive sit test and how this helps localise disease
· identify elbow effusion and elbow pain as indicators of elbow dysplasia
· palpate medial buttress and stifle joint effusion as indicators of cruciate disease
· perform an Ortolani test for identifying hip laxity as an indicator of hip dysplasia
· identify typical signs of panosteitis on orthopaedic examination
· perform a test for biceps tendon laxity
An orthopedic examination, like a neurological examination, is a detailed systems examination that is performed in addition to a general physical examination. So you will need to allow additional time if you are going to perform a complete orthopedic examination.
The amount and quality of information derived from an orthopedic examination varies from clinician to clinician.
Much of an orthopedic exam relies on subjective assessment of the dog compared to a normal dog of that breed or type or compared to the joint / segment / limb on the contralateral side. Where possible try and rely on objective changes - for example where a joint is clearly enlarged and unstable in comparison to the contralateral joint. Unfortunately, identification of clearly objective abnormalities is not always possible – early disease with subtle changes and bilateral disease are examples.
To improve identification of subjective or subtle abnormalities requires a thorough, methodical examination based on a sound understanding of normal anatomy, stance and movement. Using a consistent method of performing orthopaedic examination will improve your ability to detect subtle changes.

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