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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
annually. Triennial revaccination is simply better evidence-based medical practice, but also reduces the number of unnecessary vaccines given to adult dogs and therefore reduces the chances of adverse reactions.
Vaccination according to WSAVA guidelines necessitates being able to source vaccine ranges where products
are formulated with minimal antigenic content (e.g. combination MLV DAP vaccines, with separate non-
weeks of age). A major difference between MLV core vaccines and all of the non-core vaccines is that non- core vaccines (where used) require annual boosters as their DOI is no greater than the licensed 12 month period. Adult dogs given non-core vaccines must therefore receive these annually. In many situations therefore, adult dogs receive ‘annual revaccination’, but just with fewer components than might have been used in the past. The Annual Health Check
All aspects of vaccination should fall under an annual health check programme that reduces the emphasis
on vaccination as the primary reason for visiting the practice and considers holistically the overall health
and wellbeing of the pet in a preventive healthcare programme. A discussion about which vaccines (or serological tests) might be offered in any one year is just one part of the annual health check. The importance
of vaccination can be reinforced by using the VGG fact sheets available from the WSAVA website. Vaccination (or serology) should be appropriately invoiced so emphasis is placed on the professional consultation.
1. Ford RB, Larson LJ, Schultz RD, Welborn LV. 2017 AAHA canine vaccination guidelines.
2. Day MJ, Horzinek M, Schultz RD, Squires. Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract. 2016. 57:E1-E45.
3. Day MJ, Karkare U, Schultz RD, Squires R, Tsujimoto H. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group. J Small Anim Pract. 2015. 56.
4. Day MJ. Small animal vaccination: a practical guide for vets in the UK. In Practice. 2017. 39: 110-118.
5. Ball C, Dawson S, Williams N. Leptospira cases and vaccination habits within UK vet-visiting dogs. Vet Rec. 2014. 174: 278.
6. Altman KD, Kelman M, Ward MP. Are vaccine strain, type or administration protocol risk factors for canine parvovirus vaccine failure? Vet Microbiol. 2017. 210: 8-16.
7. Schultz RD, Thiel R, Mukhtar E et al. Age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol. 2010. 142: S102-08.
8. Mitchell SA, Zwinjnenberg RJ, Huang J et al. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2012. 90: 468-73.
core components). In many countries, only multiple combination products are available and so veterinarians in those regions should urge manufacturers to license the minimal component ranges available elsewhere in their countries.
Non-core Vaccination
Non-core vaccines should be selected for the individual dog based on assessment of that particular animal’s risk of exposure to the disease and assessment of
the benefits of vaccination to that pet versus the risk
of adverse reaction. Decision making for non-core vaccines would be facilitated by having available good quality data and disease distribution maps related to small animal infectious diseases. Unfortunately, with the exception of rabies in the USA and Europe, such distribution maps are not widely available. Some national schemes have been developed by industry
or academic groups which allow practitioners to input cases of particular infectious diseases into a database that presents the information as disease distribution maps. Monitoring the distribution and evolution of infectious diseases is an important part of vaccinology. An excellent example is canine leptospirosis, which
has recently attracted much research interest as the importance of particular serovars in causing canine disease in different geographical locations is determined. This new knowledge has led to the introduction of trivalent or tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccines in the US and Europe; the antigenic composition of which is related to the prevalence of serovars in each location. Similarly, in some countries (e.g. the USA and Korea) vaccines are available to protect against different strains of canine influenza virus (CIV). This infection remains
an issue for dogs that are intensively kenneled and transported (e.g. racing greyhounds), but the CIV vaccine would not be recommended for general use among pet dogs.
Non-core vaccines may be included into the puppy vaccination schedule if dictated by risk assessment.
For example, intranasal vaccines protecting against some elements of the canine infectious respiratory disease complex (i.e. CPi and Bordetella bronchiseptica) might be used as early as 4 weeks of age as a single vaccination. The VGG now recommends that where Leptospira vaccines are used in puppies, the required two doses of vaccine be co-delivered with core vaccines during the puppy schedule (for example at 8 and 12

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