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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
The traditional glucose curve has many limitations, including disruption of the patient’s normal activity
and eating routine, the introduction of stress-related hyperglycemia, and labor intensiveness of the procedure. Furthermore, both diabetic dogs and cats have been shown to have significant variations in
their day-to-day glycemic control. Intermittent blood sampling over only a 12-hour period may grossly over
or underestimate a patient’s glycemic control, and glucose peaks and nadirs may be missed if they occur between samplings. Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) provide a minimally invasive method
for continuously evaluating glycemic control for up to 72 hours. Interstitial glucose has been shown to correlate well with plasma glucose levels. They are comprised of an external sensor with a flexible electrode that reacts with glucose when it is inserted into the subcutaneous tissue. This sensor then communicates to a small monitor that records the glucose data. MiniMed iPro2 and Abbott Freestyle Libre systems have been used successfully in veterinary medicine and can be sent home with animals.
D. Maggs1
1Professor Ophthalmology, University of California Davis, USA. Introductory Philosophy
The uvea contains familiar tissues and cell types (lymphocytes, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, for example), is inflamed by familiar antigens (infectious agents, neoplasia, auto-antigens) and reacts with the
5 cardinal signs of inflammation seen elsewhere (heat, pain, swelling, etc.). This review aims to aid diagnosis and therapy of uveitis by likening it to inflammation elsewhere (because it is more similar than it is different) while highlighting differences (because these are helpful).
Clinical Signs
Active (acute) uveitis
Uveitis has few pathognomonic signs and these are notably more subtle in cats than they are in dogs. Therefore, uveitis in cats often goes undetected by owners and untreated by veterinarians until potentially blinding sequelae such as glaucoma, cataracts, and retinal detachment or degeneration occur. Therefore, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion regarding uveitis in all cats with ocular disease and even those with nonspecific signs such as lethargy, “hiding”, anorexia, or fever.
  Uveitis, like inflammation elsewhere, is evident as one or a combination of the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation: heat, pain, swelling, redness, and loss of function. One just has to think about how these are best seen:
· Intraocular pain: blepharospasm or epiphora; how-
ever cats seem more likely to show subtle and less localizing signs such as lethargy or anorexia
· Iridal swelling requires that the eye is examined us- ing a source of magnification (such as the Optivisor®) in association with a bright and focal light source (such as the Finoff transilluminator®) directed very obliquely across the globe. Look for a loss of the normal “texture”
· Redness evident as scleral injection is typically ev- ident in dogs but can be particularly subtle in many cats. The tendency to diagnose any redness of this region as conjunctivitis must be avoided. Redness of the iris usually indicates neovascularization and not congestion and is discussed below under chronic changes.
· Dysfunction: Given the diverse range of critical functions of the uvea, loss of function produces an important series of clinical signs evident as break- down of the blood aqueous barrier (BAB), miosis, cor- neal edema, and hypotony. Of these BAB breakdown is pathognomonic and so the anterior chamber is worthy of special attention since the aqueous humor

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