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Urinalysis is indicated to identify urinary tract infections and to determine urine concentration ability. Bloodwork might help to identify underlying diseases.
Radiography, ultrasound, computer tomography or cystoscopy might help to identify the cause of the incontinence.
Congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence can occur in combination with other malformations or alone.
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in adult dogs can be associated with neutering and is more common in large breed dogs than small breed dogs. In one study Boxer, dogs were the most common breed with adult onset of incontinence
Therapy depends on the underlying disease. For urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence the alpha- adrenergic agonist phenylpropanolamine has been proposed. In 44% of the dogs response was considered good to excellent (Aaron et al 1996). Testosterone cypionate was used a recent study for urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in 11 male dogs. Based on owners’ assessments, a good to excellent response
was reported in three of eight dogs (38%) (Palme et al 2017). Adjustable urethral hydraulic occluders have been successfully used in male dogs.
M. Natsuhori1
1Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, JAPAN
Following the great east Japan earthquake, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that happened 1-4 days later. In this proceeding the author will introduce our experience what we observed and worked for recovering from disaster. Apart from the initial radioactive iodine, the major source of radiation was radio-Cesium, namely 134Cs and 137Cs. Hopefully Strontium-90 was less than 1/1000 of radio-cesium
and was negligible. To present knowledge, apart from observation of abnormalities found in batterfly, fish and birds, there is no report or observation on mammalian species those were suffered from acute or chronic radiation effects those include chromosomal or DNA damage, anomaly, and/or radiation induced tumor or cancer in Fukushima. However, accidents will happen. But forewarned is forearmed. Prevention is better than cure. VMAT (Veterinary Medical Assistant Team on disaster) was created and its guideline was proposed in Fukuoka (2012) and in Gunma (2016). They also started training for veterinary experts. Therefore, you can never be too prepared before it starts.
On 11th March 2011, the great east Japan earthquake (magnitude 9.0) happened followed by gigantic Tsunami (wave height was over 10m and the maximum run-
up height was over 40m) and the disaster caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that happened 1-4 days later. In severe damaged area, there was no electricity, no transport system and/or
even no cars available simply because the roads were covered with mud with sea water and rubble, cars with no driver, and occasionally ships on the road. Moreover, many roads were cracking everywhere near FDNPP.
In this series of the events over 15 thousands people were dead and about 91% of the cause was drowned by tsunami.
In this lecture the author would like to talk about the impact of nuclear accidents on animals and what we have seen and learned about Fukushima, especially focused on the eye from a veterinary radiologist working in the referral hospital and university. And our experience and suggestive instruction from animal victims in the ex-evacuation zone since the disaster caused by FNPPF accident according to the following regime.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
Aaron A, Eggleton K, Power C, Holt PE. Urethral sphincter mechanism incom- petence in male dogs: a retrospective analysis of 54 cases. Veterinary Record (1996) 139, 542-546.
Palerme JS, Mazepa A, Hutchins RG, Ziglioli V, Vaden SL. Clinical Response and Side Effects Associated with Testosterone Cypionate for Urinary Incontinence in Male Dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2017; 53:285–290.

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