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B. Gerber1
1Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Zürich, Switzerland
Lower urinary tract disorders in Boxer dogs
Is there an association between urinary tract infection in young boxer dogs and early chronic renal failure?
Chronic kidney disease occurring in young Boxer dogs was first considered to be renal dysplasia (Lucke et al 1980). However later histologic examinations of kidneys of young dogs including one Boxer dog suffering from chronic kidney disease reviled lesions that did not have all the typical features of renal dysplasia (Peeters et al 2000). In a subsequent study of 37 Boxer dogs with juvenile nephropathy, the histologic picture was mostly not consistent with renal dysplasia (Chandler et al 2007). The nephropathy occurred at the age of 4 months to seven years. Twenty-nine of the dogs were female and eight were male. It was discussed if the lesions seen were caused by one disease or by different diseases. Interestingly urine culture was positive in 30% of the dogs. Even later seven Boxer dogs were described
with renal lesions with a similar appearance as those of people suffering from vesico-ureteral reflux causing a
so called reflux nephropathy (Kolbjornsen et al 2008). The kidney lesions were compatible with chronic pyelonephritis with severe cortical atrophy and fibrosis. Six of the seven dogs were related. If the dogs really suffered from vesico-ureteral reflux is not clear. Of young children with urinary tract infections about 30–45% suffer from vesico-ureteral reflux (Lellig et al 2017). If there is
a relation between the early onset of kidney disease
in boxer dogs and vesico-ureteral reflux or urinary tract infection is not known; however urinary tract infections in young female Boxer dogs seem to be common.
Chandler ML, Elwood C, Murphy KF, Gajanayake I, Syme HM. Juvenile nephropathy in 37 boxer dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2007 Dec; 48(12):690-694.
Kolbjørnsen O, Heggelund M, Jansen JH. End-stage kidney disease probably due to reflux nephropathy with segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney)
in young Boxer dogs in Norway. A retrospective study. Vet Pathol. 2008 Jul; 45(4):467-474.
Lellig E, Apfelbeck M, Straub J, Karl A, Tritschler S, Stief CG, Riccabona M. Harnwegsinfekte bei Kindern. Urologe A. 2017 Feb; 56(2):247-262.
Lucke VM, Kelly DF, Darke PG, Gaskell CJ. Chronic renal failure in young dogs-- possible renal dysplasia. J Small Anim Pract. 1980 Mar; 21(3):169-181.
Peeters D, Clercx C, Michiels L, Desmecht D, Snaps F, Henroteaux M, Day MJ. Juvenile nephropathy in a boxer, a rottweiler, a collie and an Irish wolfhound. Aust Vet J. 2000 Mar; 78(3):162-165
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
R. Palmer1
1Colorado State University, Clinical Science, Fort Collins, USA
Casts and splints are available in most primary care veterinary practices and can be used successfully to treat selected fractures in dogs and cats. Unfortunately, when used improperly or in contraindicated scenarios, these fixation methods frequently cause severe complications including fracture disease, quadriceps contracture, mal-union, delayed or non-union, and/
or infection; any of which can lead to limb amputation or euthanasia. Unexpected complications can negate their apparent affordability and, thus, lead to client dissatisfaction. Therefore, the key to successful treatment using these fixation modalities is a thorough knowledge of their indications, proper application and limitations.
Splints & Casts for Fracture Fixation
Coaptation includes both splinting and casting techniques. Neither splints nor casts provide rigid fixation, but cylindrical casts provide greater fracture zone immobilization than splints. Specifically, one must consider the ability of any fixation method to resist the disruptive forces acting upon the fracture to be treated. Disruptive forces to consider include bending, rotation, axial compression (axial collapse) and tension. We will consider each of these disruptive forces individually.
Control of Bending with Casts
All long bone fractures are subjected to bending due,
in part, to the irregular shape of bones and the inherent eccentric loading at the joint surfaces and sites of muscular attachment. In order to control bending, casts must bridge a joint above and below the fracture. Since the patient’s body wall prevents effective cast bridging
of the hip and shoulder, casts cannot be used effectively for fractures above the knee or elbow. In theory, the most rigid cast stabilization would be imparted by direct application of the cast to the bone; this, of course, cannot be performed because of the surrounding soft tissues. Nonetheless, using this mechanical principle, one can readily appreciate that anything that increases the distance between the bone and the cast (muscle mass, soft tissue swelling, excessive cast padding, improper cast molding, etc) reduces its ability to control disruptive bending forces. Cast padding is necessary to protect from soft tissue injury over bony prominences, but it is important to use no more cast padding than is necessary for this purpose.

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