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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
J, 2015) as compared to 50% 10 years earlier (Bruchim et al. 2006); however larger scale studies are needed to determine if this trend is real.
In conclusion, heatstroke in dogs is a life-threatening condition, resulting in serious secondary complications such as DIC, AKI and ARDS, and a high mortality rate despite appropriate treatment. Early admission and treatment along with whole body cooling by the owners and caregivers are important for survival. The diagnosis of canine heatstroke should not rely exclusively
on hyperthermia or the presence of neurological abnormalities upon admission, but should be based on the combination of the history, clinical signs and laboratory results. Treatment and monitoring should be intensive and prolonged since complications can have a delayed onset and present serious risk factors for mortality.
1. Krau SD. Heat-related illness: a hot topic in critical care. Critical care nursing clinics of North America. 2013;25(2):251-62.
2. Bouchama A, Bridey F, Hammami MM, Lacombe C, al-Shail E, al-Ohali Y, et al. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in heatstroke. Thromb Haemost. 1996;76(6):909-15.
3. Bruchim Y, Klement E, Saragusty J, Finkeilstein E, Kass P, Aroch I. Heat stroke in dogs: A retrospective study of 54 cases (1999-2004) and analysis of risk factors for death. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(1):38-46.
4. Bruchim Y, Loeb E, Saragusty J, Aroch I. Pathological findings in dogs with fatal heatstroke. J Comp Pathol. 2009;140(2-3):97-104.
5. Segev G, Aroch I, Savoray M, Kass PH, Bruchim Y. A novel severity scoring system for dogs with heatstroke. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2015;25(2):240-7.
6. Oglesbee MJ, Alldinger S, Vasconcelos D, Diehl KA, Shinko PD, Baumgartner W, et al. Intrinsic thermal resistance of the canine brain. Neuroscience. 2002;113(1):55-64.
7. Bouchama A, Knochel JP. Heat stroke. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(25):1978-88.
8. Hall DM, Buettner GR, Oberley LW, Xu L, Matthes RD, Gisolfi CV. Mechanisms of circulatory and intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia. American journal of physiology Heart and circulatory physiology. 2001;280(2):H509-21.
9. Shapiro Y, Alkan M, Epstein Y, Newman F, Magazanik A. Increase in rat intestinal permeability to endotoxin during hyperthermia. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1986;55(4):410-2.
J. Kirpensteijn1
1Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Global Vet Affairs, Lawrence, USA
The companion animal skin consists of two main
layers. The general composition of the outer layer, the epidermis, is of avascular keratinised stratified squamous epithelium. The thicker vascular dermis lies underneath the epidermis and consists of tough fibroelastic tissue with a supportive and nourishing function. The dermis rests on a layer of loose connective tissue known as the subcutis or hypodermis, composed of adipose tissue, the cutaneous trunci muscle (where present) and direct cutaneous arteries and veins. This layer is particularly abundant in most dogs and cats, but the quantity and elasticity of skin differs from breed to breed and on the physical condition of the animal. Variations in structure are present at different sites of the body surface. For instance the nose have a thick protective keratin layer.
In addition, in most skin areas specialized epithelial appendages exist such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
Blood supply
In dogs and cats, direct cutaneous arteries are responsible for supplying large areas of skin. They run parallel to the skin in the hypodermis and arise from perforator arteries. Musculocutaneous arteries branch off the perforator arteries and supply small portions of the skin and run perpendicular to the surface of the skin.
The subdermal plexus in dogs and cats is of major importance in companion animal reconstructive
skin surgery and should always be preserved when undermining skin for local flaps, especially when no direct superficial arteries can be incorporated in the proposed flap. Axial pattern flaps are flaps based on such direct cutaneous arteries and veins that supply
a specific region of dermal tissue. Since the terminal braches of these vessels supply the subdermal plexus, axial pattern flaps have better perfusion than local flaps and are widely used in veterinary reconstructive surgery.
Skin tension
Tension on the wound edges is the most common reason for skin reconstructions to fail and occurs when insufficient skin is available to close the initial defect. The elasticity of the canine and feline skin is primarily the result of the lack of firm attachment of the subcutis to the bone, muscle and fascia. The skin is loose and abundant on most parts of the body, particularly on the neck and trunk, but is less pliable on the limbs, tail and head, especially around the bridge of the nose, nasal planum
  10. Soares AD, Costa KA, Wanner SP, Santos RG, Fernandes SO, Martins FS, et al. Dietary glutamine prevents the loss of intestinal barrier function and attenuates the increase in core body temperature induced by acute heat exposure. The British journal of nutrition. 2014;112(10):1601-10
11. Chen GM, Lan YY, Wang CF, Zhan HX, Wang WR, Chen JH, et al. Clearance of serum solutes by hemofiltration in dogs with severe heat stroke. Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine. 2014;22:49.
12. Drobatz KJ, Macintire DK. Heat-induced illness in dogs: 42 cases (1976-1993). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1996;209(11):1894-9.
Keyword: AKI, canine, CRP, DIC, NGAL.

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