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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
times, ranging three to 10) and is determined by the severity of the stricture and the clinical response.
Prognosis of oesophageal stricture:
Although some severe cases require prolonged therapy, a majority of cases seem to achieve good and acceptable clinical response to balloon dilatation. Some cats will experience complete clinical whilst others may be plagued with only partial response.
regurgitation due to compression of the oesophagus with partial or complete obstruction. Mediastinal lymphoma is most common, although any large tumour or abscess arising from mediastinal structures (e.g., thymus, lymph node, lung) could potentially cause secondary oesophageal compression. Lymphoma is mostly in young cats, whereas thymoma occurs in elderly cats. Survey and/or contrast thoracic radiography usually identifies the mass. Lymphoma is diagnosed by fluid or FNA cytology.
In Conclusion:
Feline practitioners must remain astute when assessing cats whose owner report vomiting, ptyalism, ‘painful mouth’, and weight loss. A structured approach based around the key questions of defining the problems/system/location/lesion provides a robust framework for the practitioner to ensure all relevant diagnostic clues have been considered. Clinical thinking/reasoning skills, once developed, will allow for time efficient clinical assessment and to allow the practitioner to make diagnostically relevant decisions which will enhance client communication and improve the welfare of the cat.
1. Beatty JA, Swift N, Foster DJ, et al. Suspected clindamycin associated oesophageal injury in cats: five cases. J Fel Med Surg 2006;8:412.
2. German AJ, Cannon MJ, Dye C et al. Oesophageal strictures in cats associated with doxycycline therapy. J Fel Med Surg 7:33 2005
3. Melendez L, Twedt D, Wright M. Suspected doxycycline-in- duced esophagitis with esophageal stricture formation in three cats, Feline Pract 2000;28:10.
4. Westfall DS, Twedt DC, Steyn PF, Overhauser EB and Van Cleave JW. Evaluation of esophageal transit of tablets and capsules in 30 cats. J Vet Intern Med 2001 Sept-Oct; 15(5); 467-70.
5. Graham JP, Lipman AH, Newell SM, Roberts GD. Esopha- geal transit of capsules in clinically normal cats. Am J Vet Res 2000 Jun; 61(6): 655-7.
6. Bennett AD, MacPhail CM, Gibbons DS, et al. A compara- tive study evaluating the esophageal transit time of eight healthy cats when pilled with the FlavoRx pill glide versus pill delivery treats. J Fel Med Surg 2010;12:286.
7. Leib MS, Dinnel H, Ward DL, et al. Endoscopic balloon dila- tion of benign esophageal strictures in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2001;15:547-52.
8. Battersby I, Doyle R: Use of a biodegradable self-expanding stent in the management of benign oesophageal strictrure in a cat. J Sm Anim Pract 2009;51:49.
9. Moses L, NK Harpster, KA Beck, and L Hartzband (2000) Esophageal motility dysfunction in cats: a study of 44 cas- es. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association: July/August 2000, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 309-312
10. Berube D, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Rohleder J, Vemireddi V. Pri- mary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2009;45:291-5.
3) Oesophageal Foreign Body
Oesophageal foreign bodies are an occasional problem caused by trichobezoars, string, needles, fishhooks, pins, hairballs, and very occasionally, bones (especially V-shaped avian bones). Oesophageal FBs usually lodge at the thoracic inlet, the base of the heart, or the hiatus of the diaphragm because of the con- stricting effect of surrounding soft tissue structures in these ar- eas. The extent of secondary oesophageal damage depends on the type of object, its size and shape, and the duration of time in contact with the mucosa.
Oesophageal Disease You’ll Likely Diagnose 2-3x in Your Feline Career!
4) Oesophageal Hypomotility (Megaoesophagus)9
Oesophageal hypomotility refers to a decrease in oesophageal peristalsis. Megaoesophagus is a flaccid dilated oesophagus re- sulting from a severe diffuse motility disorder.
Both congenital and acquired forms of megaoesophagus occur in cats. A hereditary form of megaoesophagus has been sus- pected in young cats, especially Siamese. Siamese cats with megaoesophagus frequently have a concurrent gastric emptying disorder with the underlying cause of acquired megaoesopha- gus being unknown. Occasionally, systemic neuromuscular dis- ease is recognised as a cause of megaoesophagus, for exam- ple, myasthenia gravis (secondary to thymoma), tick paralysis, or even dysautonomia/Key Gaskell.
Symptomatic treatment for megaesophagus:
· Elevated feeding with small frequent meals of varying con- sistencies to see which is best tolerated
· Feeding high quality, calorie-dense foods
· Promotility agents (metoclopramide, cisapride 1mg/kg PO q 8h or 1.5mg/kg PO q 12h) can be trialed as it increases motil- ity of the oesophageal smooth muscle, but generally the re- sponse to these agents seems to be poor since most of the oesophagus in the cat is composed of skeletal muscle and thus it’s efficacy in megaoesophagus remains questionable.
5) Oesophageal Neoplasms
Primary oesophageal neoplasms are considered ‘rare’; however, this may be an underrepresentation. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common primary oesophageal neoplasm in elderly cats. Oesophageal neoplasia causes chronic progressive signs of oesophageal disease and presents similarly to the aforementioned conditions.. Survey radiographs may be normal or may reveal a soft tissue mass in the region of the oesophagus. Endoscopically, neoplasia usually appears as a focal proliferative mass, which may partially or completely occlude the lumen, often with an accumulation of hair preceding the mass. Surgical resection is not usually feasible or successful in the long term.
6) Periesophageal Masses
Mass lesions arising from peri-oesophageal tissues may cause

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