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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
1. Santoro Beer KS, Syring RS, Drobatz, KJ. Evaluation of plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission as predictors of gastric necrosis and outcome and correlation between those variables in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 78 cases (2004-2009). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2013;242(1):54-8.
2. Smart L, Reese S, Hosgood G. Food engorgement in 35 dogs (2009-2013) compared with 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus. The Veterinary Record 2017;181(21):563.
3. Brourman JD, Schertel ER, Allen DA, Birchard SJ, DeHoff WD. Factors associated with perioperative mortality in dogs with surgically managed gastric dilatation-volvulus: 137 cases (1988-1993). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1996;208(11):1855-8.
4. MacKenzie G, Barnhart M, Kennedy S, DeHoff W, Schertel,E. A retrospective study of factors influencing survival following surgery for gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 306 dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 2010;46(2):97-102.
5. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Harder A, Fehr M, LUerssen D, Brunnberg L. Treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus and a rapid method for prevention of relapse in dogs: 134 cases (1988-1991). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1993;203(9):1303-7.
6. Eggertsd Ottir AV, Moe L. A retrospective study of conservative treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus in the dog. Acta Veterinaire Scandinavica 1995;36(2):175-84.
7. Funkquist B. Gastric torsion in the dog: non-surgical reposition. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1969;10:507-11.
Hypothyroidism caused by primary disease at the level of the thyroid is most commonly recognized in dogs. Lymphocytic thyroiditis probably caused by immune- mediated mechanisms is the most common pathologic finding. In these cases, the thyroid gland is infiltrated with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, and there is progressive destruction of the follicles. It may need years to have complete destruction of the gland, and that is why hypothyroidism is usually seen in young adults. Clinical signs occur when 75% of the gland is destroyed. There is probably a genetic component of the disease since it appears to be inherited by polygenic mode in colony-raised beagles. Antibodies against the thyroid have been a source of controversy in diagnosing thyroid disease. In some dogs thyroid antibody titers may rise
as antigens are released into the circulation from thyroid gland damage. These may be measured and in some cases may indicate progressive disease. Certain breeds may have increased frequency of circulating antibody. Antibodies against thyroglobulin have been associated with routine vaccination in dogs; however, it is not known whether this is associated with the development of hypothyroid disease.Other less common causes
of hypothyroidism include thyroid atrophy that occurs when the thyroid parenchyma is replaced by adipose tissue with no inflammatory cells. This is an idiopathic change or may signal endstage lymphocytic thyroiditis. Neoplastic destruction of thyroid tissue also can result
in hypothyroidism. Congenital thyroid agenesis or dysgenesis may occur rarely. Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine- induced hypothyroidism has been reported as an example of drug-induced disease and has been postulated to directly interfere with thyroid peroxidase activity and thus directly inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis. Secondary disease, with hypopituitarism, is rarely reported.
C. Ward1
1University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Athens, USA
how I treat hypothyroid dogs
Cynthia R. Ward, VMD, PhD, DACVIM
University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA
Canine hypothyroidism is the most commonly diagnosed endocrinopathy in the dog. There is a large incidence
of false diagnoses and unnecessary supplementation. This presentation will discuss the difficulty in correctly diagnosing the disease, recognition of clinical signs, and treatment.
  8. Goodrich ZP, Powell LL, Hulting, KJ. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Journal of Small Animal Practice 2013;54:75-9.
9. de Papp ED, Drobatz KJ; Hughes, D. Plasma lactate concentration as a predictor of gastric necrosis and survival among dogs with gastric dilatation- volvulus: 102 cases (1995-1998). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1999;215(1):49-52.
10. Zachar LB, Berg J, Shaw S, Kudej RK. Association between outcome and changes in plasma lactate concentration during pre-surgical treatment in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 64 cases (2002-2008). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2010;236(8):892-7.

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