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J. Gawor1
1Klinika Weterynaryjna Arka, Klinika, Kraków, Poland Learning objective:
Obtaining diagnostic radiograph is necessary to interpret it. Correct projections and exposing techniques are necessary too get the good quality radiograph.
The correct way of reading dental radiographs will
be presented with presentation of most commonly radiopaque and radiolucent lesions.
Evaluation of dental radiographs starts with appropriate orientation of the image according to established standards.
The key to properly identifying the imaged teeth on standard (analog films) radiographs is the embossed dot, which is near one corner of the film. When exposing a radiograph on standard radiographic films, the convex surface points towards the radiographic tube head when the film is properly positioned. It is not possible to obtain a diagnostic radiograph with the film in backwards, because of the lead sheet on the back side of the film. Therefore, when exposing the film, the embossed dot must be facing out of the mouth.
Interpreting dental radiographs starts with the appropriate orientation. First, place the convex side
of the dot towards you. This means you are looking
at the teeth as if your eyes are the x-ray beam. This
step is done for you on most digital systems. The dot should always be located in such a way that it is not superimposed on structures being imaged. When chemical development is performed, place the clip to hold the film adjacent to the dot. This will provide an area of interest free of interfering artifacts. Next, rotate the
film so that the roots are in their natural position (pointing up on maxillary views and down on mandibular). When this is done, it is necessary to determine if it is the left or right side of the patient. For lateral oblique projections (canine, premolar, and maxillary molar teeth) or parallel projections (mandibular molar teeth), the side of the
film where the more mesial teeth are located indicates the side that was imaged. In other words, if the mesial teeth are on the right side of the film, it is an image of
the right side of the patient. With other projections, such as dorsoventral (DV) or ventrodorsal (VD) images (i.e incisors or canines), the right side of the mouth is on the left side of the film and vice versa for the left side of the mouth. This is similar to a VD image of the abdomen.
To distinguish between mandibular and maxillary images, certain landmarks should be evaluated.
25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
• Assess level of pain. Discuss your assessment with the attending veterinarian.
• Provide a clean and dry cage at all times. Patient should be away from draughts.
• Provide soft bedding to reduce pressure sores. Rotate animal if it is not able to move a particular body part at least 4 times a day.
• Provide cats with a nest such as a cardboard box with padding for them to hide.
• Assess periodically if wound and sutures are intact.
• Assess if any unexpected bleeding or seepage from wounds or other sites.
• Check bowels and bladder at least twice per day.
• Ensure bandage is intact, dry and providing the protection and support required.
The Animal Industries Resource Centre Course materials – Certificate IV in Veterinary Nursing

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