Page 416 - WSAVA2018
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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
· · Abducted elbows
· · Exaggerated abdominal component
Airway Obstruction and Injuries to the Respiratory Tract
Causes of airway obstruction and respiratory dysfunction may include:
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initially stabilized (depending on cause) by performing thoracocentesis to remove blood.
A pyothorax is caused by bacterial contamination of the pleural space, both cats and dogs can present with this condition. However, the causes can vary greatly. In cats, the most common cause of bacterial contamination is from the oral cavity of other cats – bite wounds to the chest. Other causes of pyothorax include:
· · Bacterial contamination from penetrating chest injuries
Trauma – Hit by car, dog attack
Foreign bodies
Degenerative physical conditions – such
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as: laryngeal paralysis, tumours, collapsing trachea
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Haemothorax (blood in the chest cavity) Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) Chest wall trauma (flail chest)
Migrating foreign bodies (grass seeds etc) Inhalation and migration of foreign body Rupture or perforation of the oesophagus Rupture or perforation of the trachea Bacterial pneumonia leading to lung
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bronchitis, or secondary – e.g. due to cardiac failure)
Lung disorders (primary - e.g. chronic · · Respiratory paralysis
· · abscessation
· · Physical deformity e.g. brachycephalic – bulldogs / pugs etc
A pneumothorax is caused by leakage of air from the airways or parachyma into the pleural space. It is often caused by blunt trauma to the chest (e.g. hit by car).
Many patients that have sustained trauma to the chest may have a small leak that seals over quickly and may not produce clinical signs.
· Open Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is termed ‘open’ when there is a penetrating wound to
the thoracic cavity and air is being ‘sucked in’ through the wound. First aid action is to cover the open wound immediately to reduce air being introduced.
· Closed Pneumothorax The most common type seen, especially following blunt trauma. There is no penetrating wound. The air is leaking within the pleural space.
· Tension Pneumothorax As the air leaks into the pleural space it is like a one-way valve, the air leaks in but is not removed. When the pres-
sure from the leaking air becomes higher than atmospheric pressure, this is termed a tension pneumothorax – a life threatening condition and thoracocentesis must be performed immediately.
A haemothorax is defined as blood within the pleural cavity. This can result from trauma, or accumulation of blood due to, for example, a clotting disorder and an active bleed has occurred. A haemothroax is
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Heart worm
Congestive heart failure Trauma Hypoalbuminaemia
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· · Bacterial spread from other site (systemic sepsis)
Flail Chest
When a rib segment is broken and becomes free- floating, it is termed a flail chest. Pain and dyspnoea are observed and often the flail segment can be located by visualization of the chest wall.
Pleural Effusion
The pleural lining is the lining of the thoracic cavity
and outer surface of the lung, the lining covering the outer portion of the lung is the VISCERAL PLEURA, the lining covering the mediastinum and diaphragm is the PARIETAL lining, these two linings are separated by a thin layer of fluid to reduce friction between the two surfaces. A pleural effusion is defined as an excessive collection of fluid between the visceral and parietal pleura.
Causes of pleural effusion include:
Delivering Oxygen
Provide supplemental oxygen. It is essential that the patient receives supplemental oxygen in the least stressful manner. The patient should be placed in sternal recumbency as this facilitates easier breathing. The method chosen is dependent upon the patient

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