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the peripheral to the center of the kidney. The red colour coded blood vessels at the top half of the image represent renal arteries that are flowing from the hilus to the peripheral margin of the kidney.
In colour Doppler, we sometimes encounter colour flow aliasing, which will lead to reversal of the colour map showing mixing of blues and reds, which is termed Mosaic pattern. Aliasing happens due to high velocity flow with and velocity scale setting error. To optimize
the colour Doppler, a lower transduce frequency, and a smaller color sector width should be utilize. Most of the currently ultrasound machine will be able to display a normal black and white image with colour Doppler at the same time.
Power Doppler:
Power Doppler displays the integrated power of the Doppler signal by a single color map instead of the mean frequency shift. There is no aliasing with power Doppler. Flow direction and velocity information normally is not known. This display is more sensitive then colour Doppler to small vessels and those with slow flow. In some advance ultrasound machines, directional power Doppler, which is sensitive to slow flow but at the same time showing the direction of the flow is available.
In recent ultrasonographic technology advances, multiple companies has produced Doppler that is very sensitive to slow flow. Most of them are available in the premium line of products. All of them has specific name by the company: for example Superb Micro-Vascular Imaging (SMI) of Toshiba, B-Flow of GE, S-FlowTM of Samsung, MicroCPA of Philips and Fine Flow of Hitachi Aloka. One of the advantages of this technology is be able to detect the actual margins of the blood vessels.
The potential application of the advance technology
in veterinary medicine is still unknown. The extreme sensitivity of this for detection of blood flow may be useful in the determination of change of blood flow in the treatment of neoplasia, thus evaluating the effective of treatment.
J. Hatcher1, C. Harvey Stevenson1, M. Oleary1 1Provet AIRC, AIRC, Brisbane, Australia
Jo Hatcher Cert IV VN, TAE, Dip VN, AVN
Brisbane, Australia.
Stages of Anaesthesia
Four stages and planes of anaesthesia have been classified. The use of intravenous anaesthetic agents plunge the animal through the initial stages so rapidly that they may not be recognised.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
   Stage 1
   Still conscious but disorientated, amnesia, unaltered threshold to pain, but some pain is tolerated
   Stage 2
  Unconsciousness, excitement, delirium & uninhibited action. Suppression of higher control centres; struggling, crying, exaggerated response to pain / stimuli Irregular respiration

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