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living in the country side were grass own are common. In a study evaluating 182 dogs with documented grass own inhalation, only in 3 dogs grass own was confirmed. Grass owns migration may be the source of Nocardia and Actinomyces spp. that are usually in organic matter.
Primary antimicrobial therapy is based on cytological evaluation and later on culture and sensitivity. Cytologic findings did not match microbiological findings
in 13 of 44 (30%) dogs. Empirical treatment with penicillin based antibiotics combined with floroquinalones
and sulfadiazine (TMS) have shown that results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing suggested empirical antimicrobial selection was associated with a 35%
E. Robertson1
1American Board Certified Diplomate Feline Practice,
Feline Vet and Endoscopy Vet Referrals, Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom
Laparoscopy offers a minimally invasive alternative to laparotomy for exploring the abdominal cavity in our feline patients. The widespread acceptance of laparoscopy stems mainly from the successes and technological advances in a variety of procedures in the human field compared to those of traditional open surgery. Though many surgical procedures performed in human beings will have little applicability in cats, many of the procedures used for diagnostic purposes will offer value due to its relative ease, effectiveness, and decreased of morbidity compared to more traditional interventions.
Diagnostic Laparoscopy: Is it for the Feline Practitioner? Does Laparoscopy Present Any Advantage to the Patient? What are the Advantages for the Owners
Often times in feline practice, the clinician is faced with owner hesitation in putting a cat through traditional exploratory surgery for the sake of diagnostic purposes. With that in mind, clinicians will often have to rely on indirect and incomplete information provided by blood tests and imaging studies to arrive at a ‘most likely’ diagnosis. The psychological barrier for pursuing surgical biopsies seems greatly reduced when a minimally invasive alternative is offered as an alternative to open surgery.
It’s been well established in the human field that laparoscopic procedures greatly reduce patient morbidity, post-operative pain and post-operative recovery times. In both human and veterinary literature, it’s been well documented that larger incisions are considerably more painful compared to smaller incisions.1-3 Recovery times (and how well the patient recovers) are also important factors when deciding on minimally invasive surgery, not only for the patient, but also their caregivers during the convalescence period. In addition to reduced incision size, cytokine and other inflammatory mediator release are greatly reduced, not only due to minimal trauma during tissue manipulation, but also directly due to carbon dioxide insufflation. The latter has been shown, in vitro, to cause a marked cytosolic acidification in peritoneal macrophages which suppresses cytokine release for up to 24 hours.4
Can the Practitioner Benefit From It?
Over the years, placing an endoscope into a cavity (or ‘hole’) has brought a tremendous amount of diagnostic information to the clinician. Laparoscopy gives the internist an extra opportu- nity to carry out a thorough visual inspection of the abdominal cavity, in a highly magnified and illuminated environment.5,6 This is particularly advantageous in very small patients particular- ly when attempting to gain access into relatively inaccessible spaces (e.g. between liver and diaphragm). Laparoscopy allows for procurement of excellent quality (and size) tissue samples5-7 in a controlled environment (e.g. controlling haemostasis).
The idea of minimally invasive surgery, as well as the idea of offering the state-of-the-art technology, will certainly push cat
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
  risk of inefficacy. Several bacteria may produce sulfur granules in the septic pleural effusion. A study of 46 dogs with pyothorax a filamentous, branching organism was detected cytologically in 18 dogs, 11 of which had sulfur granules. Bacteria isolated from these 18 dogs included Prevotella spp, Clostridium, Bacteroides spp, Corynebacterium spp, Staphylococcus spp, Enterobacter spp, Fusobacterium spp Nocardia and Actinomyces
spp. The 2 latter are Gram positive, creating endospres that became reactive in optimal environment. They
are not always identified in normal stain as they are partially acid fast therefore may need special staining (e.g Zen Nielsen) to identified them in a smear. When these bacteria are highly suspected a combination of clindmacyn and TMS should administrate. CT-scan and surgical intervention may be needed as pulmonary absces is suspected as source of infection. Intrapleural antimicrobial treatment is not recommended in human empyema. Only one limited study in veterinary medicine has shown shorter thoracic tube placement in dogs treated intrapleurally with antibiotics (ampicillin and /or metronidazole) (4.8 vs. 6.8 days). However, the sample size was small and did not reach significant statistical difference.

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