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• Atropine or glycopyrrolate are not adviced as they decrease respiratory secretions by reducing the serous component thereby potentially causing the development of dangerous mucous plugs.
• Buprenorphine can be associated as a single shot as it gives a long analgesic effect without CVS depression
• The association ketamina-midazolam can be safely used in kittens as it stimulates the central nervous system without causing any depression of the cardio-respiratory function
Prepubertal neutering is probably an acceptable technique for dogs and cats when it is performed
at a shelter. Health risks are minimal and there are advantages due to the lower incidence of side effects when compared to performing it in adult animals. However, the choice of neutering a very young (<3 months) or even an adult pet should be thoroughly discussed with the owner carefully highlighting advantages and disadvantages. Once a decision
on neutering has been taken, the option of delaying neutering until the anestrus following puberty in bitches should be considered because of the potential beneficial effects on the development of the urogenital system
1. Okkens AC, Kooistra HS, Nickel RF – Comparison of long-term effects of ovariectomy vs ovariohisterectomy in bitches. J Reprod Fert Suppl 51, 227-231, 1997
2. Johnston SD, Root-Kustritz MV, Olson PNS – Prevention and termination of canine pregnancy. In: Canine and Feline Theriogenology. Editors SD Johnston, MV Root-Kustritz and Olson PNS, WB Saunders 2001, pp 165-192
3. Van Goethem B, Shaefers-Okkens A, Kirpensteijn J – Making a rational choice between ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy in the dog: a discussion of the benefits of either techniques. Veterinary Surgery 35:136-143, 2006
4. Whitehead M – Ovariectomy versus ovariohisterectomy. (Letter) Vet Record 159 (Nov 18): 723-724, 2006
5. Becker RL, Giles RC, Hildebrandt PK – Coitally induced peritonitis in a dog. Vet Med Small An Clin 10:53-54, 1974
6. Root-Kustritz - Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats - JAVMA, 231 (11), 1665-1674, 2007
7. Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DON. Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 1969;43:1249–1261.
8. Niskanen M, Thursfield MV. Associations between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in Finnish dogs. Vet Rec 1998;143:493–498.
9. Hart BL – Problems with objectionable sociosexual behavior in dogs and cats: therapeutic use of castration and progestins. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 1:461-465, 1979
10. Salmeri KR, Olson PN, Bloomberg MS: Elective gonadectomy in dogs: a review. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:1183, 1991.
11. Howe LM – Short-term results and complications of prepubertal gonadectomy in cats and dogs. JAVMA 211:57-62, 1997
12. Olson PN, Kustritz MV, Johnston SD. Early-age neutering of dogs and cats in the United States.J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2001;57:223-32.
13. Root MV, Johnston SD, Olson PN. The effect of prepuberal and postpuberal gonadectomy on radial physeal closure in male and female domestic cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1997 Jan-Feb;38(1):42-7
14. Langley-Hobbs SJ. A Salter Harris type II fracture of the distal ulna in a fourteen month female neutered Great Dane. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2005;18(1):43-5
15. Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA: Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. J Am Med Assoc 224:380, 2004a.
16. Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA: Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in cats. J Am Med Assoc 224:372, 2004b.
17. Overall KL – Working bitches and the neutering myth: sticking to science. The Veterinary Journal 173: 9-11, 2007
18. Kim HH, Yeon SC, Houpt KA, Lee HC, Chang HH, Lee HJ. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on reactivity in German Shepherd dogs. Vet J. 2006 Jul;172(1):154-9.
19. Martin LJM, Siliart B, Dumon HJW, Nguyen P – Spontaneous hormonal variations in male cats following gonadectomy. J Fel Med Surg 8:309-314, 2006
20. Snow GR, Cook MA, Anderson C – Oophorectomy and cortical bone remodeling in the beagle. Calcif Tissue Int 40:194-199, 1987
21. Pearson H – The complications of ovariohysterectomy in the bitch. J Small An Pract 14:257-266, 1973
22. Dorn AS and Swist RA – Complications of canine ovariohysterectomy. JAAHA 13:720-724, 1977
23. Berzon JL – Complications of elective ovariohysterectomies in the dog and cat at a teaching institution: clinical review of 853 cases. Vet Surg 8:89-91, 1979
24. Pollari F, Bonnet BN, Bamsey SC et al. – Postoperative complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and paper records. JAVMA 208:1882-1886, 1996
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hospital. Vet Rec 2005;157:829-833.
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