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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
rabies, the challenge of ensuring 70% vaccination coverage of the dog population in a country is complex. This presentation will focus on how the global community addresses the challenge on the issue of mass dog vaccination and how individual communities are gaining success in controlling dog-mediated human rabies through dog vaccination.
Challenges and Solutions
Lack of access to safe and efficacious dog vaccines
is one of the factors that impact conduct of mass dog vaccination at a country level. Since 2012, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) established regional vaccine banks with the aim to support national governments with easier access to high quality, affordable vaccines. By December 2017, 19 million dog rabies vaccines have been supplied to 28 countries in Asia and Africa through the vaccine bank.
Limited focus on strategic planning and allocation of financial resources hinders the implementation of mass dog vaccination in the field. Based on the successful elimination at the regional level of Latin America, a regional rabies elimination approach through the establishment of regional rabies elimination control networks in Africa, Asia and Middle East is underway. These regional meetings provide venue for conduct of workshops such as the Stepwise for Rabies Elimination (SARE) to develop work plans for rabies elimination as well as Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway (GDREP) to determine financial requirements to support mass dog vaccination.
At the field level, operational challenges include the lack of manpower to support MDV and proper estimation of dog population as well as dog vaccination coverage. The Global Education Platform (GEP) of Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) provides free online courses to support training of vaccinators such as the Rabies Educators Certificate (REC) and the Animal Handling and Vaccination Course (AHVC). GARC as well as Humane Society International (HSI) and Mission Rabies have
also developed computer based tools to support dog population estimation and vaccination coverage. Oral rabies vaccination is now also being seen as a possible support to mass dog vaccination specifically targeted for dogs that are free roaming and difficult to handle for parenteral administration of rabies vaccine.
Lack of knowledge about rabies and misconceptions on its prevention and control hinder the community to support local rabies programs. Innovative methods to mobilize the community have been implemented in different countries through community education and school based intervention.
Success Stories
Countries in Latin America have shown that a regional approach focusing mainly on mass vaccinating dogs together with proper animal bite management and surveillance can decrease rabies human deaths and confirmed dog rabies cases significantly. A total of 50 million dogs are estimated to be vaccinated in the region annually.
In Bangladesh, thousands of dog catchers and vaccinators were trained as result of a snow-ball technique capacity building mechanism. Through this mechanism, 70% mass dog vaccination coverage was achieved in 1 week wherein majority of the dogs are free roaming.
Focusing on mass dog vaccination together with
other rabies control components such as information campaign, strengthened surveillance and better access to PEP were also key to reducing human rabies deaths (Sri Lanka) with some countries achieving zero human rabies deaths (Mexico). Strengthening mass dog vaccination campaigns have been also crucial
in controlling rabies in Kwazulu Natal (South Africa), Visayas, (Philippines) and Tanzania.
One Health Approach from the Global to the Local Level
One Health approach emphasized on the intersectoral approach to fight rabies. As a global response to the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies by 2030, a United Against Rabies collaboration composed FAO, OIE, WHO and GARC has been established to support countries to achieve rabies elimination by sharing existing tools and expertise. Regional networks have also been established in Africa, Asia and Middle East
to serve as a venue for national program managers from the animal health and medical sector together with regional partners to plan a regional approach for rabies elimination.
At the country-field level, Integrated Bite Case Management (IBCM) serves as a basis for animal health and medical personnel to collaborate to assess the risk of an animal bite and plan the best course for animal bite management strategy. The impact of IBCM is that it can reduce the cost of treatment of rabies in humans by determining rabies risk in biting animal (low risk if dog is regularly vaccinated; high if dog is free roaming, non- vaccinated and have signs of rabies).
Private practitioners and professional/civic organizations play a huge role in the rabies elimination efforts. This is seen through the cooperation between sectors during World Rabies Day celebration. In the Philippines, the bayanihan (cooperation and community) spirit has
been the main driving force in the rabies elimination efforts such as the training of village health workers to support mass dog vaccination. In remote communities in Northern Tanzania, dog vaccination is scheduled in the

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