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community during the deworming of children.
The goal of global elimination of dog-mediated human rabies faces a lot of challenges but inspiring stories of cooperation and sharing of innovations at the global to the local level have shown that reaching the 2030 rabies elimination is feasible.
References:World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Gobal Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), 2018, Zero by 30: the global strategic plan to end human deaths from dog- mediated rabies by 2030.World Health Organization; 2018, WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies, third report. Geneva: (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 1012).
WHO and OIE 2016, Report of the Rabies Global Conference, Global conference on the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: the time is now!, WHO Geneva.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
B. Doneley1
1Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia
Clinical pathology is a commonly used diagnostic tool in exotic pet medicine. In many cases, blood collection techniques are rarely as simple as they are small animal medicine, and the interpretation of the results requires knowledge of species variation in haematologic and biochemical parameters in response to the patient’s clinical status. This presentation will discuss blood collection techniques in birds, reptiles and common small mammals. Interpretation of laboratory results will be explored, using case studies to illustrate species variation and response to disease.
Some pearls to help you get the best possible results
Interpretation of avian and biochemistry results is only part of the art of using haematology and biochemistry to assess your patients. To get the most out of a submitted sample it is important to provide your laboratory (external or in-house) with the best possible sample in the best possible condition. The following are some hints for doing that.
1. Submit the largest size sample you can without compromising your patient’s wellbeing. General- ly we can collect 5% - 10% of the patient’s blood volume (equal to 0.5 - 1% of its bodyweight), but the amount we collect in paediatric and anaemic patients is less. It is always worth speaking to your lab to find out what size sample they need, but negotiate with them if they are want volumes larger than 0.5ml of whole blood.
2. Avoid haemolysis by using an appropriate size needle (23-27g) and using gentle negative pres- sure on the plunger to prevent turbulence during collection. Remove the needle before placing the sample into the collection bottles.
3. Make several blood smears before placing the sample into anti-coagulant. Rather than using an- other microscope slide to push the blood along the slide, use a cover slip to drag the sample along the slide.
4. Use BD Microtainers® for your sample, but don’t under or over fill the tubes. Under-filling the tube mixes excessive anticoagulant with the blood; overfilling may result in a clotted tube.

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