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either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. COX-2 inhibitor drugs double life expectancy with carcinomas while melatonin appears to improve survival times in all solid tissue tumors including gliomas. None of these measures will necessarily treat or cure cancer, but they will not do any harm and may provide quality of life. That is probably what is important in cancer which cannot be surgically removed.
H.B. Seim1
1Colorado State University
Key Points
· Patients with cystic and urethral calculi present with stranguria
· Retropulsion of urethral calculi into the urinary blad- der simplifies management of urethral calculi
· Aggressive lavage of the urethra and bladder should be performed during cystotomy
· Permanent urethrostomy is an acceptable method of managing chronic stone formers
Definition: Cystic and urethral calculi have various compositions (i.e., oxalate, struvite, urate) and may be present in the urinary bladder or lodged in the urethra, respectively. They may be multiple or single, may cause partial or complete obstruction (i.e., urethral), and may require surgical manipulation for removal.
Clinical presentation:
Signalment: There is no age, sex or breed predisposition.
History: Patients generally present with a history of urinary obstruction and/or signs of urinary tract infection. Common complaints include difficulty urinating, straining to urinate, hematuria, blood tinged urine in the litter
pan, and/or a distended abdomen. Patients that present several days after complete obstruction may have a distended and painful abdomen and a history of anuria. These patients may be so compromised that they present in shock.
Clinical signs: The most frequently reported clinical signs in patients with cystic and urethral calculi include unproductive straining to urinate, blood tinged urine seen in the litter pan, hematuria, and/or polakiuria. Severity of clinical signs may vary with the degree of urethral obstruction and duration of obstruction prior
to presentation. Patients with complete obstruction for several days may show signs of post-renal azotemia (i.e., severe depression, recumbant, shocky).
Physical examination: Abdominal palpation may reveal a full urinary bladder; occasionally, calculi within the bladder may be palpable. Patients with severe clinical signs (i.e., presented several days after complete obstruction) may show azotemia, shock, and/or severe depression. Abdominal palpation generally reveals a large, turgid urinary bladder and may result in discomfort to the patient.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
Combining Integrative Medicine with
mainstream oncology care can reduce clinical signs burden and improve the quality of cancer care and quality of life, and the well-being of patients and their owners.
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2. Xie H. How to select Chinese herbal medicine for cancer patients. Am J Trad Chin Vet Med 2006; 1 (1): 49-52
3. Cheng YY, Hsieh CH, Tsai TH. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics. J Food Drug Anal. 2018 Apr;26(2S):S88-S95.
4. Wu X, Cheng J, Wang X. Dietary Antioxidants: Potential Anticancer Agents. Nutr Cancer. 2017 May-Jun;69(4):521-533.
5. Fang M, Yuan J, Peng C, Li Y. Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression. Tu- mour Biology. 2014;35(4):2871-2882. doi:10.1007/ s13277-013-1511-7.
6. Brown DC, Reetz J. Single Agent Polysacch- aropeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosar- coma. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM. 2012;2012:384301. doi:10.1155/2012/384301.
7. D’Eliseo D, Velotti F. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy. Brown L, Rauch B, Poudyal H, eds. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016;5(2):15. doi:10.3390/jcm5020015.

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