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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
considered for refractory epilepsy as a last resort. In one study, nine of 15 dogs had at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency after gold wire implantation in acupoints.8 Acupuncture and herbal medicine should be tried before permanent materials are implanted, since metal implants may interfere with future MRI testing.
Dietary Supplements
1. Omega 3 Fatty acids had reported a significant positive association between omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) and epileptic seizures in reducing the frequency of seizures in human patients. 19 The author doses 1,000-1,500 mg daily per 1,000 kcal of food intake daily.
2. Thiamine (vitamin B1) can be considered as an add-on treatment in deficient and non-deficient thiamine epileptic patients, and might improve attention and other mental abilities in people with epilepsy.20
3. Vitamin E: Co-administration of Vitamin E 400 IU/day with antiepileptics for 6 months has shown to improve seizure control and reduces oxidative stress in a double-blind, placebo- controlled trial.21
4. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) provide hepatocellular protection by stabilizing hepatic cell membranes. SAMe (15 to 20 mg/kg q24h) and/or milk thistle extract (5 to10 mg/kg q24h) or silybin (1-2 mg/kg q24h) to prevent liver damage from AED.
1. Kurn, Sidney J, and Sheryl Shook. Seizure Disorders. In Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2016. Internet resource.
2. Bollinger-Schmitz K, Kline K. “An Overview of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy for the Small Animal Practitioner”, Iowa State University Veterinarian. Vol. 62, 23–29, 2000.
3. O’Brien D, Simpson S, Longshore R, Kroll
R, Goetze L. “Use of nimodipine in canine epilepsy”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210:1298–1301, 1997.
4. Kline K. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Neurologic Disorders”. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, Vol 17, No 1: 25-33, 2002.
5. van Niekerk J, Eckersley N. The use of acupuncture in canine epilepsy. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 59(1):5, 1998.
6. Janssens LAA. “Ear acupuncture for treatment of epilepsy in dogs”. Progress in Veterinary Neurology. 4 (3):89-94, 1993.
5. < > has been shown to be effective in both experimental models and patients suffering from epilepsy. It is also potent antioxidant enzymes scavenging oxygen free radicals.22 The author commonly supplements 3-5 mg orally before bed time.
Antioxidant levels like catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, glutathione (GSH), thiol group (SH), uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), were found significantly low levels of antioxidant in epileptic patients as compared to controls. AED did not influence the antioxidant status suggesting that seizures induce oxidative stress.23
6. Hemp-based cannabidiol (CBD) oil is an extract from industrial hemp plants that contains mainly non-psychoactive CBD with minimal to no psychoactive THC.. Emerging data support its use as a therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy in humans.24
7. Huperzine A is a compound isolated from Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata, and is available as an over-the-counter supplement to
enhance memory. It has been shown to have anti-seizure action in animal models.25 Huperzine A is given orally (1 μg/kg q8-12h).
Nutrition Therapy
A ketogenic diet, a diet that is high in fat and low in protein and carbohydrates (typically with ratios of up to 4:1 fats to proteins and carbohydrates), has showed some promising results in controlling the frequency of seizures in children. In two canine epilepsy studies, ketogenic
diet (5.5 % MCT. MCT content was about 10 % of the
total formula calories), when added to standard AED treatment, was associated with a lower seizure frequency and reduced some ADHD-like behaviors, compared to the placebo diet.27,28
Integrative Medicine may prove to be an excellent adjuvant to conventional therapy in the treatment
of seizures in animals, especially those with poorly controlled seizures. In mild cases, Integrative therapies, especially TCVM can be used on its own to help prevent and minimize the occurrence of further seizures. It may reduce the requirement for anti-epileptic medication. Nevertheless, there is a need for evidence-based research in the study of integrative therapies for managing seizures in animals. A pet owner looking at integrative medicine for epilepsy should ensure their
pet is treated by a veterinarian specialized in integrative medicine, in addition to having the animal evaluated by a veterinarian or a veterinary neurologist.

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