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1. KuKanich B, Papich MG. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology Therapeutics. 2004;27(4):239-46.
2. McMillan C, Livingston A, Clark C, Dowling P, Taylor S, Duke T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2008;72(4):325-31.
3. KuKanich B, Papich M. Pharmacokinetics and antinociceptive effects of oral tramadol hydrochloride administration in Greyhounds. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2011;72(2):256-62.
4. Matthiesen T, Wöhrmann T, Coogan TP, Uragg H. The experimental toxicology of tramadol: an overview. Toxicology Letters. 1998;95(1):63-71.
5. Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol, and its metabolite O-desmethyl-tramadol, in cats. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology Therapeutics. 2007;31(1):071120043304002.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
M. Chandler1
1Vets Now Referrals, Clinical Nutrition, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Probiotics – Not All Created Equal?
Interest in the use of probiotics has continued to grow over the past 10 years. A PubMed search on “probiotics” brings up over 18,000 articles, with nearly 650 published in early 2018. With increasing knowledge of the gastrointestinal (GI) and other microbiomes there is increasing interest in probiotic use
When practitioners consider the use of probiotics, it
is often for pets with chronic or acute diarrhoea or possibly as adjunct therapy for pets on antibiotics. Most commercial probiotic products are marketed for gastrointestinal disorders. Ideally the choice should be made based on scientific evidence.
A panel of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotic slightly modified the FAO/
WHO definition of probiotics to: “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. While fermented foods have benefits, the benefits of the food could not be separated from the those of the microorganisms, so these foods are not considered probiotics. Similarly, while faecal microbiota transplantation has shown benefits, the lack of identification of the microorganisms used excluded this from the definition of probiotic other than when a defined mixture of microbes is used. The term probiotic has also been mis-used on products as diverse as mattresses, shampoos, face creams and aftershave and shampoos containing yoghurt.
Prebiotics are nutrient sources for beneficial bacteria included in a food or supplement, e.g. fructooligosaccharide or inulin. When a prebiotic is included with probiotics it is termed a synbiotic.
Core benefits
While the decision to use a probiotic should be made on evidence that the microorganisms and the amount have a benefit for the disorder treated, there is now evidence of effects which can be ascribed to some probiotic strains in general. These are strains used at a functional dose as a food or supplement and for humans include Bifidobacterium (adolescentis, animalis, bifidum, brese and longum) and Lactobacillus (acidophilus, casei,
  6. Pypendop B, Siao K, Ilkiw J. Effects of tramadol hydrochloride on the thermal threshold in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2009;70(12):1465-70.
7. Mastrocinque S, Fantoni D. A comparison of preoperative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2003;30(4):220-8.
8. Vettorato E, Zonca A, Isola M, Villa R, Gallo M, Ravasio G, et al. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intravenous and extradural tramadol in dogs. The Veterinary Journal. 2010;183(3):310-5.
9. Morgaz J, Navarrete R, Muñoz Rascón P, Domínguez JM, Fernández Sarmiento JA, Gómez Villamandos RJ, et al. Postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, buprenorphine and tramadol in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Research in Veterinary Science. 2013;95(1):278-82.
10. Kongara K, Chambers JP, Johnson CB. Effects of tramadol, morphine or their combination in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy on peri-operative electroencephalographic responses and post-operative pain. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 2012;60(2):129-35.
11. Schütter A, Tünsmeyer J, Kästner SBR. Influence of tramadol on acute thermal and mechanical cutaneous nociception in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2017;44(2):309-16.
12. Steagall PVM, Taylor P, Brondani J, Luna SPL, Dixon M. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol and acepromazine in cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 2008;10(1):24-31.
13. Brondani JT, Loureiro Luna SP, Beier SL, Minto BW, Padovani CR. Analgesic efficacy of perioperative use of vedaprofen, tramadol or their combination in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 2009;11(6):420-9.
14. Cagnardi P, Villa R, Zonca A, Gallo M, Beccaglia M, Luvoni GC, et al. Pharmacokinetics, intraoperative effect and postoperative analgesia of tramadol in cats. Research in Veterinary Science. 2011;90(3):503-9.
15. Evangelista MC, Silva RA, Cardozo LB, Kahvegian MAP, Rossetto TC, Matera JM, et al. Comparison of preoperative tramadol and pethidine on postoperative pain in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. BMC Veterinary Research. 2014;10(1):1-19.
16. Bayldon W, Bauquier S. Evaluation of the postoperative analgesic efficacy of tramadol administered pre-emptively by the oral or intramuscular routes in cats. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2017;44(1):195.e9.
17. Malek S, Sample SJ, Schwartz Z, Nemke B, Jacobson PB, Cozzi EM, et al. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis. BMC Veterinary Research. 2012;8(1):185-201.
18. Budsberg S, Torres B, Kleine S, Sandberg G, Berjeski A. Lack of effectiveness of tramadol hydrochloride for the treatment of pain and joint dysfunction in
dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2018;252(4):427-32.
19. Brown D, Bell M, Rhodes L. Power of treatment success definitions when
the Canine Brief Pain Inventory is used to evaluate carprofen treatment for the control of pain and inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2013;74(12):1467-73.
20. Monteiro BP, Klinck MP, Moreau M, Guillot M, Steagall PVM, Pelletier J-P, et al. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. PloS One. 2017;12(4):1-13.
21. Guedes AGP, Meadows J, Pypendop B, Johnson E. Evaluation of tramadol for treatment of osteoarthritis in geriatric cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2018;252(5):565-71.

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