Page 571 - WSAVA2018
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Weight management
The gut microbiota differs between obese and lean individuals and is a potential determinant of obesity. Probiotics may affect the gut microbiota to modulate obesity. A meta-analysis of human studies on probiotics as a treatment for weight loss indicated limited efficacy for decreasing body weight and body mass index; however, a more recent meta-analysis concluded
that probiotics or prebiotics (but oddly, not synbiotics) compared to placebo were associated with significant decreases in human weight and fat mass. Short-term use of E faecium SF68 dietary supplementation in eight cats had no effect on food intake, bodyweight, body composition or metabolic parameters in overweight and obese cats; however, longer, larger studies would be useful.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
In humans with CKD, decreased azotaemia was seen with 6-month probiotic treatment. The probiotic VSL#3 plus a renal diet in 60 dogs with CKD increased the glomerular filtration after 2 months compared to controls on just the renal diet. Similarly, in azotaemic cats, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations decreased after 60 days probiotic supplementation; although concurrent treatments varied and the relationship to quality of life or survival time was not clear. In 10 cats with naturally occurring azotaemia, synbiotic supplementation had no effect on azotaemia compared to a control with prebiotic alone, although GFR was not measured. This same synbiotic supplementation decreased serum creatinine but not serum urea of 15 azotaemic large cats (e.g. tigers, lions, etc.) after 6 months.
Calcium Oxalate Uroliths
Oxalate is eliminated through urinary excretion,
forming insoluble calcium oxalate in the GIT and faecal elimination, or by oxalate degradation by gastrointestinal microorganisms. Some probiotics containing Lactobacillus spp or Oxalobacter formigenes degrade GI oxalate, resulting in decreased absorption and urinary excretion. The prevalence of O formigenes in faeces from dog with calcium oxalate uroliths was 25%, 50%
in healthy dogs and 75% in healthy dogs of breeds not
at risk for oxalate uroliths. The faeces of 86% of healthy cats had the genes for O formigenes, although the association with oxalate urolithiasis has not yet been explored. Further investigations need to determine whether there is a direct link between the lack of oxalate- degrading bacteria and hyperoxaluria, if absence is a risk factor for urolithiasis, and if supplementation decreases the risk.
Canine atopic dermatitis (AD)
Human and dogs with AD have a skin microbiota dysbiosis, with lower diversity of microbial populations,
than healthy individuals. Whether altered microbial populations are the cause or the effect of inflammatory skin conditions is not yet known; however, the microbiome has an important role in skin health. Studies on the prevention or treatment of canine AD have had mixed results on clinical signs. One study showed a decrease in prednisolone use in dogs with AD given Lactobacillus paracasei K 71 compared to those on cetirizine hydrochloride.
References available on request.
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