Page 584 - WSAVA2018
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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
References and further reading
Borgeat K, Wright JA, Garrod O et al (2012). Arterial thromboembolism in 250 cats in general practice: 2004-2012. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 28 102-108
Ferasin L and DeFrancesco T (2015). Management of acute heart failure in cats. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 17 (S1) S.173-S.189
Hogan D, Fox PR, Jacob K et al (2015). Secondary prevention of cardiogenic ar- terial thromboembolism in the cat: the double-blinded, randomized, positive-con- trolled feline arterial thromboembolism; clopidogrel vs. aspirin trial (FAT CAT). Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 17 S.306-S.317
Humm, K., Hezzell, M., Sargent, J., et al. Differentiating between feline pleural effusions of cardiac and non-cardiac origin using pleural fluid NT-proBNP con- centrations. Journal of Small Animal Practice 54, 656–661
Lisciandro GR (2011) Abdominal and thoracic focused assessment with sonog- raphy for trauma, triage, and monitoring in small animals. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 21, 104–22
Payne JR, Borgeat K, Connolly DJ et al (2013). Prognostic indicators in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 27 1427- 1436
Smith SA, Tobias AH, Jacob KA, Fine DM, Grumbles PL. Arterial thromboembolism in cats: Acute crisis
in 127 cases (1992-2001) and long-term management with low-dose aspirin in 24 cases. J Vet Intern
Med. 2003;17:73-83
Ward JL, Lisciandro GR, Keane BW et al (2017). Accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasonography for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in dogs and cats with acute dyspnea. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250 666-675
1 H.B. Seim
1Colorado State University
If you would like a copy of this surgical procedure on DVD go to
Key Points
• Pay attention to basic surgical principles
• Submucosa is the layer of strength
• Use synthetic absorbable suture materials
• Appositional techniques are best
• Intestinal sutures should engage at least 3 - 4 mm of submucosa
• Intestinal sutures should be no further apart than 2 - 3 mm
• Always handle bowel wall using atraumatic technique • Examine the integrity of your anastomsis visually
• 50 - 60% of the ‘small intestine’ of dogs and cats can be resected
General principles of small intestinal surgery
1) Incorporation of the collagen laden submucosal layer in the surgical closure.
2) Minimize trauma and contamination.
3) Maintain good blood supply to the surgical site.
4) Avoid tension across the suture line as this may increase the possibility of leak and/or breakdown.
5) Pay attention to your established criteria when suturing intestinal defects.
Operative Considerations
1) Proper “packing off” of the surgical field using moistened laparotomy pads should be performed around the exteriorized bowell to prevent accidental abdominal contamination from intestinal contents.
2) Keep abdominal contents warm and moist throughout surgery with a warm, balanced electrolyte solution.
3) Handling abdominal viscera should be kept to
a minimum. Gentle manipulation of intestine with moistened gloves or stay sutures is helpful in preventing unnecessary tissue trauma. DeBakey forceps are the most atraumatic forceps for handling abdominal visceral organs.
4) The collagen laden, tough submucosa is the layer

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