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elongated crowns should be filed using abrasive burs
on a low/high speed handpiece. Overgrown incisors
are similarly filed back using an abrasive bur. After reduction in height, the teeth are then filed and shaped to restore normal chisel shaped appearance of the teeth. Extractions should be performed using the specialized Crossley’s luxators due to the long tooth roots and care should be taken to ensure entire tooth and its pulp tissue is removed. Extraoral extractions can be attempted
F. Gaschen1
1Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA USA
The general term “chronic enteropathies” (CE) has been used frequently in recent years to describe dogs and cats with chronic intestinal diseases of unknown origin. Diet-responsive diarrhea (DRD), antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are different forms of chronic enteropathies. They may form a continuum, with DRD being a mild form of CE, and IBD representing the severe form of the disease.
The following definitions apply to diseases affecting the
small and/or the large intestine.
· Chronic enteropathies (CE): a term encompassing all chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases of unknown origin. This includes diet-responsive CE, antibiotic-re- sponsive diarrhea or intestinal dysbiosis, and inflam- matory bowel disease (IBD).
· Diet-responsive CE: a form of CE that responds to a dietary trial with an elimination diet based on a novel protein source or the use of hydrolyzed peptides.
· Antibiotic-responsive diarrhea or idiopathic small in- testinal dysbiosis: a form of CE associated with a se- vere imbalance of intestinal microbiota that responds to treatment with select antimicrobials
with optimal calcium and phosphorus ratio of 1.5–2:1. Therefore, only commercial pellets as well as hay and grass with balanced mineral content and ratio should be selected for feeding. Wellness exams and regular weight checks are recommended for all rabbit and herbivorous rodent patients.
Canine CE are thought to occur as a consequence of a combination of factors that include dysregulation of the intestinal mucosal immune system and its interactions with intestinal microbiota and/or dietary components, and compromised integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier.
CE are characterized by chronic or chronic-intermittent
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  when an intra oral extraction technique is not feasible. Indications of extraoral techniques may include retained dental tips, severe root deformities, abscessations and osteomyelitis especially of the mandibular cheek teeth.
Facial abscesses and osteomyelitis
A common sequale of ADD in rabbits and herbivorous rodents are the gradual formation of abscesses resulting from periapical infections. Abscesses are usually not painful, cool to touch, encapsulated in a thick wall and contain a very dense, white and creamy pus. Treatment of abscesses involve aggressive surgical debridement, marsupialization and long-term antibiotic therapy. Mandibular abscesses may develop under the masseter muscles (especially in guinea pigs) and even result in osteomyelitis and jaw deformities.
Dental disease in rabbits and rodents can be very rewarding to treat and most patients will have a good outcome if diagnosis is reached early and timely treatment performed. However in chronic and advanced stages, treatment may also be performed periodically as a form for palliative care. Post-procedural supportive therapy would include analgesics such as opiods
and non-steroidal anti inflammatories, antibiotics, fluid therapy, and gastrointestinal motility drugs. Anorexic patients should also be supplemented with a commercial hand feeding formula such as Oxbow Critical Care (Oxbow Pet Products Murdock NE,
Diet counselling should be performed for all owners
of pet rabbits and herbivorous rodents to prevent
ADD. Rabbits and herbivorous rodents should be fed a pelleted diet and ad libitum hay and grass. Commercial mixtures with seeds and other additives are not recommended due to their selective feeding behaviour which will favour ingredients which are high in energy, high in phosphorus, low in calcium and ultimately this does not support optimal chewing patterns. A rabbit’s optimal diet should be high in fibre (20–24%) and
· Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): a term used by some as synonymous to CE. Other authors prefer to use IBD to define a more severe form of CE that does not respond to a dietary trial or to a course of antimicrobials, and requires the use of immune-sup- pressive drugs. IBD is associated with moderate
to severe infiltration of the intestinal mucosa with inflammatory cells (such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and/
or a combination of 2 types). In addition, changes in mucosal architecture such as stunting of the small in- testinal villi are also common. Severe IBD may cause protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Granulomatous colitis of boxers is a particular form of IBD that affects young boxers and bulldogs.

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