Page 72 - WSAVA2018
P. 72

S. Quek1
The skill to maximize a dermatologic exam would seem very basic, but yet often forgotten. We are always so eager to dive into examining the patient that we forget that a good part of a good dermatologic exam is actually the history of the patient.
A dermatologic exam would constitute the entire dermatology consult. How successful a dermatologic consult would be dependent on how effective the vet identifies the skin condition, prescribes the treatment, communicates that to the owner and if the owner is going to follow up with the treatment.
A good dermatologic exam starts off with a detailed history of the patient. Asking the right questions is very important to obtain correct information of the patient’s skin condition from the owner. Questions such as:
· Is the patient itchy?
· If so, where is it itchy?
· When is it itchy? Seasonal or non seasonal? · Age of onset?
· Acute or chronic?
· Previous treatment and response?
· Previous diet and response?
This information can help categorize the skin condition. Whether it is allergic skin disease, ectoparasite, infectious, hormonal related or autoimmune.
The next step to a dermatologic exam is examining the patient. Look at the distribution of lesions. Most allergic skin disease in dogs have a predictable distribution pattern. Lesions affecting periocular, perioral, ears, paws, cubital areas, axilla, inguinal and perianal areas would point towards a possible food adverse reaction or atopic dermatitis. Bilateral flank, lateral thighs and tail base would indicate a possible flea bite allergy. Ear margin dermatitis and crusting with positive pinna-pedal reflex would be suspicious of sarcoptic mange infestation. Nasal planum, mucocutaneous junction ulceration and crusts would indicate an autoimmune disease and the list goes on. It is important to be familiar with the distribution patterns of different skin diseases.
Once a differential diagnosis of skin conditions has been made, the next step is to take good samples. Missing a skin diagnosis occurs more often from not taking correct samples than actually not knowing about the disease. Hence taking good samples is important to confirming the diagnosis. Sample taking also helps determine what treatment to administer. If antibiotics or anti-fungals need to be prescribed. Vets should be familiar with taking proper samples such as deep skin scrapes, fungal
25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
1. Acupuncture. NIH Consensus Statement Online 1997 Nov 3-5; month, day]; 15(5):1-34.
2. Acupuncture: Review and Analysis Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002. Internet resource.
3. Chiu JH, Chung MS, Cheng HC, Yeh TC, Hsieh JC, Chang CY, Kuo
WY, Cheng H, Ho LT: Different central manifestations in response to electroacupuncture at analgesic and nonanalgesic acupoints in rats: a manganese-enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Can J Vet Res 67(2):94-101, 2003.
4. Fwk S. The Neurophysiologic Basis Of Acupuncture. In Schoen Am (Ed): Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art To Modern Medicine, 1st Ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 1994, Pp 35–45, 48, 50.
5. Gunn Cc. Type Iv Acupuncture Points. Am J Acupuncture. 1997;5:51–52.
6. Han JS. Acupuncture and endorphins. Neurosci Lett. 2004 May 6;361(1- 3):258-61.
7. Hwang Yc, Egerbacher M. Anatomy And Classification Of Acupoints. In Schoen Am (Ed): Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art To Modern Medicine Second Edition. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2001, Pp 19–21.
8. Janssens L., Rogers P., Schoen A.: Acupuncture Analgesia: A Review. The Veterinary Record 122, 355-358, 1988.
9. Leung, Mason C. P, Ka K. Yip, Yuen S. Ho, Flora K. W. Siu, Wai C. Li, and Belinda Garner. “Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Acupuncture on Cognitive Improvement: a Systematic Review of Animal Studies.” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. 9.4 (2014): 492-507.
10. Melzack R, Wall PD: Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 150(699):971- 9, 1965.
11. Xie H. Xie’s Veterinary Acupuncture. Ames, Ia: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, Pp 245–327.
12. Zhang, R, L Lao, K Ren, and BM Berman. “Mechanisms of Acupuncture- Electroacupuncture on Persistent Pain.” Anesthesiology. 120.2 (2014): 482-503.

   70   71   72   73   74