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The pathognomonic lesion is eosinophilic intranuclear/ intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in such infected as glial cells, neurons, epithelial respiratory cells, and cells of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. Virus isolation is the gold standard for diagnosis and is useful in low levels of virus infection through observation of typical syncytial cell formation.
Attenuated live vaccines have been used for controlling the disease for many decades, yet a number of CDV infections in vaccinated dog were still observed. In Thailand, we identified circulating CDV strains into
2 clusters; Asia-1 and Asia-4. By using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques, we could effectively differentiate among individual wild-type and vaccine lineages presenting in Thailand.
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C. Cannon1, S. Ryan1
1University of Melbourne, U-Vet Animal Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Claire Cannon BVSc (hons) DACVIM (Oncology) MANZCVS
Stewart Ryan BVSc (hons) MS DACVS MANZCVS University of Melbourne U-Vet Animal Hospital
Learning objectives: Develop an approach to the diagnosis and staging of oral tumours in dogs and cats. Understand the principles of surgery for oral tumours, and indications for other treatments such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy either as adjuncts to surgery or as sole treatments.
The most common oral tumours in dogs are melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and fibrosarcoma (FSA), though many other tumours can occur in the oral cavity including the tongue. In cats, 60-70% of oral tumours
are squamous cell carcinoma with fibrosarcoma being the second most common. General principles of staging and diagnosis apply regardless of tumour type. Although cytology may be diagnostic, given the difficulty of
FNA in a conscious patient, sedation/anaesthesia and incisional biopsy for histopathology is generally most appropriate. All the common tumours in dogs and cats have some risk of metastasis, so staging is indicated prior to surgery. CT is generally preferred to assess the primary tumour, local lymph nodes (LN) and lungs all at the same time. Abdominal imaging could be considered, especially for canine oral melanoma. LN palpation is
not sensitive or specific for metastasis and so cytology/ histopathology is recommended. However, identification of the ‘sentinel’ lymph node based on anatomy alone can be challenging. Metastasis to both ipsilateral and contralateral submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes can be seen in dogs with malignancies of the head, including the oral cavity.
For tumours without distant metastasis, surgery (primary tumour +/- LN excision) is recommended where possible. However, oral tumours may be extensive at the time of diagnosis, especially those located more caudally in the mouth, precluding excision.
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