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References
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2. Fracassi F, Corradini S, Hafner M, et al. Detemir insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:73-78.
3. Gilor C, Graves TK. Synthetic insulin analogs and their use in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40:297-307.
4. Rucinsky R, Cook A, Haley S, et al. AAHA diabetes management guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2010;46:215-224.
5. Hess RS. Insulin resistance in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40:309-316.
6. Behrend EN, Kooistra HS, Nelson R, et al. Diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism: 2012 ACVIM consensus statement (small animal). J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:1292-1304.
7. Vaughan MA, Feldman EC, Hoar BR, et al. Evaluation of twice-daily, low-dose trilostane treatment administered orally in dogs with naturally occurring hyperad- renocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232:1321-1328.
8. Reid LE, Behrend EN, Martin LG, et al. Effect of trilostane and mitotane on aldosterone secretory reserve in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocor- ticism. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:443-450.
9. Helm JR, McLauchlan G, Boden LA, et al. A comparison of factors that influ- ence survival in dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism treated with mitotane or trilostane. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:251-260.
10. Clemente M, De Andres PJ, Arenas C, et al. Comparison of non-selective adrenocorticolysis with mitotane or trilostane for the treatment of dogs with pitu- itary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Rec 2007;161:805-809.
11. McLauchlan G, Knottenbelt C, Augusto M, et al. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of trilostane on insulin requirement and fructosamine concentration in eight diabetic dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. J Small Anim Pract 2010;51:642-648.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
WSV18-0007
WAVMA ORNAMENTAL FISH DISEASES
CUTANEOUS LESIONS IN KOI
J. Tepper1
1Long Island Fish Hospital, Veterinarian, Manorville, USA
CUTANEOUS LESIONS IN KOI
Julius M. Tepper, DVM
Long Island Fish Hospital, Manorville, NY cypcarpio@aol.com
Some of the most common complaints for which the
pet fish practitioner is called upon to examine and diagnose are cutaneous lesions in koi. The majority of the time these lesions will be cutaneous ulcers. Along with “mouth rot’ and “fin rot”, these form the complex described as koi ulcer disease. Treatment protocols will vary depending on whether the lesions are of the trunk, the mouth or the fins or in combination. It will also be dependent on the extent of the lesion(s), the stage of degeneration/regeneration and the treatment options available. It is important to determine the stage in the development and healing as local debridement will be useful in the degenerative phase, but counterproductive during healing. This would limit the use of topical treatment to only the first few days after ulceration. Determination of stressors in the aquasystem leading up to the outbreak should be identified where present. Systemic antibiotics are often indicated, especially
with multiple and/or extensive lesions. Additional considerations are maintenance of ideal water
quality, especially if treating in a quarantine system
and stabilized water temperature at 75 °F (24°C), the preferred optimum temperature for koi. Other conditions that may be seen on the integument are saprolegniasis, koi herpesvirus (CyHV-3), edema (“Pine cone disease”), macroscopic parasites (lernea, argulus, ich), neoplasia (carp pox, papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma), trauma (heron attack), special conditions of butterfly koi fins, special conditions of doitsu koi, and finally, clinically significant non-lesions (narial folds of showa, narial folds of butterfly koi, shimmies).
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