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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
Since neoplasia is the most common cause of hypercalcemia, this should be looked for. PTHrP is sometimes available for the dog and cat and serum samples looking for the presence of this malignancy- related hormone should be submitted if possible. Imaging studies should be performed to look for metastatic disease in the lungs and radiographs and/or ultrasound to look for evidence of neoplastic disease in the abdomen.
If results of the studies outlined above do not reveal
the etiology of the hypercalcemia, parathyroid disease should be suspected. If the serum phosphorous level
is low, this is further indication of hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism may be diagnosed by measuring PTH hormone levels. An ionized calcium most be run on a sample obtained at the same time in order to evaluate the PTH level since PTH is regulated based on the serum Ca2+. In order to diagnose hyperparathyroidism, an inappropriately elevated PTH level must be detected as compared to serum Ca2+. Serum vitamin D levels
can be checked to rule-out unobserved rodenticide ingestion or inadvertent supplementation with vitamins. If hyperparathyroidism is suspected, an ultrasound examination should be performed to try to identify a parathyroid tumor. Scintigraphy using technetium may provide an additional, nonivasive imaging technique
if nothing can be seen on ultrasound examination. In some cases, surgical exploration may be the only way to identify parathyroid disease.
During the quest for diagnosis, the hypercalcemia
must be addressed since hypercalcemia may result
in tubular degeration and necroses of the kidney. Additionally, with elevations in serum phosphorous levels, hypercalcemia may lead to precipitation of calcium/phosphorous crystals in soft tissue structures. Treatment for hypercalcemia includes intravenous saline diuresis and lasix. In refractory cases, calcitonin is very effective in lowering serum calcium levels, although
its effects are transitory. Although glucocorticoids also promote calciuresis and thus are effective in treating hypercalcemia, they should not be used until an etiology is determined since their use can confound the diagnosis of lymphoma, a chief rule-out for hypercalcemia. Bisphosphonates are a new class of drugs just starting
to be used in veterinary medicine. Pamidronate and zolendronate has been used intravenously in dogs and cats with good results. These compounds are especially helpful in controlling bone pain associated with malignancies. Success has also been reported with oral alendronate (Fosamax); however, care must be taken to avoid esophagitis and stricture especially in cats.
WSV18-0042
WAVMA ORNAMENTAL FISH DISEASES
THERAPEUTICS IN AQUATIC VET MEDICINE
R. Loh1
1The Fish Vet, Aquatic Veterinary Medicine and Diagnostics, Perth, Australia
THERAPEUTICS IN AQUATIC VET MEDICINE
Abstract
In fish, therapeutic agents are used for the treatment of a variety of infectious diseases. The presentation will give practical advice for special considerations when dealing with different pathogens, different fish species and in different environments.
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43RD WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND 9TH FASAVA CONGRESS













































































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