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4) Liver Qi Stagnation
VI. Summary
Acupuncture and herbal medicine could serve as an effective, safe, well-tolerated and inexpensive form of care for dogs with CDS
References:
1. Landsberg GM, Nichol J, Araujo JA. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome: a disease of canine and feline brain aging. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012 Jul;42(4):749-68.
2. Cummings BJ, Head E, Afagh AJ, et al. Beta-amyloid accumulation correlates with cognitive dysfunction in the aged canine. Neurobiol Learn Mem 66:11-23, 1996.
3. Bosch MN, Pugliese M, Gimeno-Bayón J, et al. Dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome: A natural model of Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 9:298-314, 2012.
4. Landsberg, G., 2005. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction syndrome in senior dogs. Prog. Prog. Neuropsychopharm. Biol. Psychiat. 29 (3), 471–479.
5. Ruehl, W.W., Hart, B.L., 1998. Canine cognitive dysfuntion. In: Dodman, N.H., Shuster, L. (Eds.), Psychopharmacology of Animal Behavior Disorders. Blacwell Science, Malden, pp. 283–304.
6. Neilson JC, Hart BL, Cliff KD, Ruehl WW. Prevalence of behavioral changes associated with age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. JAVMA 2001;218:1787- 1791.
7. Head E, Moffat K, Das P, et al. Beta-amyloid deposition and tau phosphorylation in clinically characterized aged cats. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26:749-763.
8. Zhongjie Liu and Jianqin Xu (ed). Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (3rd Edition, In Chinese). Beijing: China Agricultural Press. Beijing, China. 2005.
9. Liu F, Li ZM, Jiang YJ, Chen LD. A Meta-Analysis of Acupuncture Use in the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment After Stroke. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Jun 10
10. Fu LM, Li JT. A systemic review of single review Chinese herbs for Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011
11. Lee, M. S., Shin, B. C., & Ernst, E. Acupuncture for Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 2009;63:874–879.
12. Schroer, S., & Adamson, J. Acupuncture for depression: A critique of the evidence base. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 2011;17:398–410.
13. Sun ZK, Yang HQ, Chen SD. Traditional Chinese medicine: a promising candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Transl Neurodegener. 2013 Feb 28;2(1):6
14. Zeng BY, Salvage S, Jenner P. Effect and mechanism of acupuncture on Alzheimer’s disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2013;111:181-95.
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18. Jinzhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xuekai Zhang, Yongyan Wang. Herbal therapy: a new pathway for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2010; 2(5): 30.
19. Iwasaki K, Kobayashi S, et.al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the Chinese herbal medicine “ba wei di huang wan” in the treatment of dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Sep;52(9):1518-21.
20. Iwasaki K, Satoh-Nakagawa T, et.al. A randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of the traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Gan San for improvement of behavioral and psychological symptoms and activities of daily living in dementia patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;66(2):248-52
· Signs: Irritability/aggressiveness, depression, fluc- tuation of mental state, burping, nausea/vomiting, constipation to diarrhea, finicky/poor appetite, thirst, red conjunctiva, dislike to be touch on the thoracic flank region. Tongue is pink to red/lavender or red on the sides. Pulses are wiry, especially on left side
· Treatment strategy: Soothe Liver Qi, strengthen Spleen/Stomach, calm the mind
· Acupuncture treatment: Common points (PC-5/6, HT- 5/7, BL-14/15/43/44, GV-20, CV-15, Da-feng-men, Nao- shu, An-shen, GB-20, LI-4, LIV-3); add BL-18/19, LIV- 3/13/14, GB-3 to soothe the Liver Qi, and BL-20/21, LI-10 and ST-36 to strengthen Spleen and Stomach
· Herbal formula: Yi Gan San, Chai Hu Shu Gan, Liver Happy, or Xiao Yao San, 0.5 g per 1020 lb body weight BID-TID. Use Liver Happy in severe cases; Use Xiao Yao San if patients have digestive problems
5) Heart and Spleen Qi Deficiency
· Signs: Reduced responsiveness, stop any social interaction or become less responsive, become more aloof or fearful, poor memory, having indoor accidents, decreased appetite, lassitude, a desire to lie down, weakness of the limbs, sleep more, panting due to shortness of breathe, stare blankly at a roof, wall or air, signs often worsen during day time, fail
to recognize their owners and friends at the end. Tongue is pale wet. Pulses are deep, weaker in the right side
· Treatment strategy: Tonify Heart and Spleen Qi, calm the Mind
· Acupuncture treatment: Common points (PC-5/6, HT-5/7, BL-14/15/43/44, GV-20, CV-15, Da-feng-men, Nao-shu, An-shen, GB-20, LI-4, LIV-3); add CV-6/17, BL-20/21, ST-36, SP-6, LI-10 to strengthen Qi
· Herbal formula: Yang Xin Tang, 0.5 g per 1020 lb body weight BID-TID. Add Si Jun Zi Tang or Liu Jun Zi Tang if there is decreased appetite
6) Heart Yin and Blood Deficiency
· Signs: Listlessness, anxiety, poor memory, reduced responsiveness, bark or abnormal behavior at night or late evening, pacing at home at night, sleep less at night, awake at night, having household accidents, cats may howl at night for no reason, signs often worsen during evening. Tongue is red or pale and dry. Pulses are deep and thin, weaker on left side
· Treatment strategy: Nourish Heart Yin and Blood, calm the Mind
· Acupuncture treatment: Common points (PC-5/6, HT-5/7, BL-14/15/43/44, GV-20, CV-15, Da-feng-men, Nao-shu, An-shen, GB-20, LI-4, LIV-3); Add CV-4, BL-17, BL-20, SP-10, KID-3/7, SP-6/9 to nourish Yin and Blood
· Herbal formula: Shen Calmer or Tian Wang Bu Xin Dan, 0.5 g per 1020 lb body weight BID-TID. Use She Calmer in severe cases
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