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Independent Work Time (30-40 minutes)
Assistants work independently, in pairs, or small groups. Nienke, Vicki & Martin circulate for 2 or 3 minutes to ensure all assistants are on task, and then confers with individuals for a few minutes, taking anecdotal notes work with a small group in direct instruction
Share Session (5 minutes)
Nienke reconvene class to focus on the work of one
or two assistants that use what was taught in the mini- lesson recap key learning of the day (1 minute) check for understanding (with short reflective writing or exit slips) give homework feedback.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
WSV18-0133
SVA DERMATOLOGY (SIMULTANEOUS TRANSLATION INTO MANDARIN CHINESE)
NEW CONCEPTS OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTIONS: MICROBIOME AND BIOFILMS
M. Burrows1
1Animal Dermatology Clinic Perth Murdoch University Divi- sion of Veterinary and Biomedical Science Murdoch, West- ern Australia
MICROBIOMES
The skin is a complex ecosystem and is colonized by
a wide variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The microbiome encompasses the full complement of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites. The normal skin microbiota is necessary
for optimal skin fitness, modulating the innate immune response and preventing colonization of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.
Studies using sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes have revealed that the skin surfaces of humans and companion animals are inhabited by a highly diverse microbiota that was previously not appreciated by culture-based methods. Furthermore, there are topographic differences in the various skin surfaces, with the microbiota from similar skin locations of different people being more closely related than different skin locations from the same individual. Temperature, pH, moisture, environmental contact, and contact with mucous membranes are some of the factors that may influence the variability of bacterial abundance and distribution on the skin. In humans, Propionibacterium predominantly colonize the sebaceous areas, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium are commonly found in moist areas, and gram-negative organisms
are more likely to colonize dry skin areas such as the forearm or leg. The skin microbiota also changes with age, with infants having significantly different microbial populations than adults. Human skin also harbours a diverse fungal microbiome. The genus Malassezia is most abundant in all skin regions, with 11 of the 14 known Malassezia species being identified among skin sites. The plantar heel is the most diverse site with higher representation of different fungal genera, including Malassezia, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Epicoccum.
The Skin Microbiome in Healthy Dogs
The diversity of the skin microbiota in different cutaneous and mucocutaneous regions in healthy dogs has been demonstrated. Similar to humans, different skin sites
from dogs are inhabited by a variable and unique microbiome, with significant individual variability between samples from different dogs and between different
skin sites within the same dog. A large number of
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