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ambient radiation dose rate, radioisotope analyses from biological samples and soils in the farm where cattle are kept.
The cumulative radiation dose in the farm was estimated at most 1.2 to 1.5 Gy (or Sv for human effective dose) for 7 years since the FDNPP accident happened. However blood test and biochemistry from cattle was normal range and showed no abnormality. Comet assay to detect some degree of DNA degradation
Prevention is better than cure. VMAT (Veterinary
Medical Assistant Team on disaster) was created and its guideline was proposed in Fukuoka (2012) and in Gunma (2016). They also started training for veterinary experts. Therefore, you can never be too prepared before it starts. Concerning preparation of shelters and or VMAT, periodic intimate communications (and simulative trainings, if possible) are inevitable to keep good contact among veterinarians, assistants, supporting staffs local government and volunteers.
References
Nuclear Accidents and the Impact on Animals. Committee recommendations. A committee of Subject Matter Experts from Japan and the United States convened May 2-3, 2011 to discuss animal issues resulting from the FDNPP accident. The Members from International fund for animal welfare (IFAW) 2011. May 5th
https://s3.amazonaws.com/ifaw-pantheon/sites/default/files/legacy/IFAW-nuclear- accidents-impact-animals-decontamination-2014.pdf
Wada S, Ito N, Watanabe M, Kakizaki T, Natsuhori M, Kawamata J, Urayama Y. Whole-Body Counter Evaluation of Internal Radioactive Cesium in Dogs and Cats Exposed to the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0169365. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169365 (2017)
Sasaki J, Hiratani K Sato I Satoh H, Deguchi Y, Chida H, Natsuhori M, Murata
T, Ochiai K, Otani K, Okada K, Ito N Pathological findings of Japanese Black Cattle living in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, 2013–2016, 2017, 88(2), 2084-2089
Ochiai K, Hayama S, Nakiri S, Nakanishi S, Ishii N, Uno T, Kato T, Konno F, Kawamoto Y, Tsuchida S, Omi T Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster Scientific Reports volume 4, Article number: 5793 (2014)
Hiyama A, Nohara C, Kinjo S, Taira W, Gima S, Tanahara A, Otaki JM, The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly Scientific Reports volume 2, Article number: 570 (2012)
Hiyama A, Nohara C, Taira W, Kinjo S, Iwata M, Otaki JM The Fukushima nuclear accident and the pale grass blue butterfly: evaluating biological effects of long-term low-dose exposures BMC Evolutionary Biology201313:168 https://doi. org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-168
Nohara C, Hiyama A, Taira W, Tanahara A, Otaki JM The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly, Scientific Reports volume 4, Article number: 4946 (2014)
Taira W, Hiyama A, Nohara C, Sakauchi Ko, Otaki JM. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly J. Radiation Research, 56(suppl_1, 1) December 2015, Pages i2–i18, https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrv068
Sasaki et al reported that the major sickness or abnormality was sporadically observed. The major cattle diseases or abnormalities found in the evacuation zone was nine cases (3.7%) of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and three cases (1.2%) of goiter were diagnosed. Estimated integrating dose of external exposure in
EBL cases ranged from a maximum of 1200 mSv to
a minimum of 72 mSv. There was no evidence of a radiation effect on pathological findings in any of these autopsy cases. This is ironical, since they were kept outside so long, most of them are now positive for bovine leukemia virus infection and found sick or dead due to the onset of leukemia. Geographic distribution of the soil contamination, ambient radiation dose rate and its time course will be also discussed.
Some investigations on wild lives were performed
in non-mammalian species including monkeys, wild boars, fish insects and plants. In the initial observation demonstrated that there was decrease of white and red blood cell in blood of monkeys some extent, but so far extended decrease of the blood cell is not reported.
· What happened soon after the FDNPP accident...es-
· How to rescue animals; A proposal to the govern- ment from animal/radiology experts
· Problems and efforts for rescuing companion animals and creating animal shelters and its management
· Investigations of companion animal radiation expo- sure and cumulative radiobiological effects
· Investigations of farm animal radiation exposure and cumulative radiobiological effects
· Investigations of wild lives’ radiation exposure and cumulative radiobiological effects
· What we have learned from the nuclear accident and what should be done for the future prevention?
Apart from the initial radioactive iodine, the major source of radiation was radio-Cesium, namely 134Cs and 137Cs. Hopefully Strontium-90 was less than 1/1000 of radio- cesium and was negligible. To present knowledge,
apart from observation of abnormalities found in pale glass blue butterfly, fish and birds, there is no report or observation on mammalian species those were suffered from acute or chronic radiation effects those include chromosomal or DNA damage, anomaly, and/or radiation induced tumor or cancer in Fukushima. However, accidents will happen. But forewarned is forearmed.
cape from evacuation zone and refugee
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
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