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and Critical Care 1998;8:29-45.
8. Levi M, ten Cate H. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341:586-592.
9. Mallett SV, Cox DJ. Thrombelastography. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;69:307-313.
10. Grant HW, Hadley GP. Prediction of neonatal sepsis by thromboelastography. Pediatric Surgery International 1997;12:289-292.
11. Kraft W. [Thrombelastogram in healthy domestic cats and therapy of dissemi- nated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in panleukopenia]. Berliner und Muenchen- er tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 1973;86:394-396.
12. Otto CM, Rieser TM, Brooks MB, et al. Evidence of hypercoagulability in dogs with parvoviral enteritis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2000;217:1500-1504.
13. von Schaewen H. [Thrombelastographic studies and thrombocyte count in dogs]. Berliner und Muenchener tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 1971;84:324-328.
14. Franchini M, Manzato F. Update of the treatment of disseminated intravascu- lar coagulation. Hematology 2004;9:81-85.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
WSV18-0052
NAVC SHORT TOPICS FROM EXPERTS
HOW I TREAT POST-OP TPLO WITH PHYSICAL REHABILITATION
J. Van Dyke1
1CRI, Faculty, Wellington, USA
NAVC SHORT TOPICS FROM EXPERTS: HOW I TREAT POST-OP TPLO
WITH PHYSICAL REHABILITATION Janet B. Van Dyke, DVM,
Diplomate American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
Wellington, Florida USA janetvandyke@me.com
Canine rehabilitation is the application of physiotherapeutic techniques to evaluate and treat musculoskeletal impairments in our canine patients. It incorporates the use of objective outcome measures (goniometers, girthometers, etc.), manual assessments (including palpation, joint glides, and neurological assessment), gait analysis, and special tests brought from the field of human physiotherapy. This allows the therapist to tease out the specific structure and tissue type causing the impairments.The therapist evaluates the presenting complaint, subjective information from the owner, and objective assessment carried out during the examination to create a problem list. Each item
on the problem list is addressed in the plan of care. Therapeutic plans generally involve a combination of manual therapies (joint mobilizations and soft tissue mobilizations), physical modalities (laser, therapeutic ultrasound, e-stim, shockwave), and therapeutic exercises. The modalities are generally used to prepare the tissues for the manual therapies and therapeutic exercises. Physical modalities should never be the sole therapeutic method applied to any patient.Therapeutic exercise plans are based upon the weight bearing status of the patient, with early interventions focusing upon functional weight bearing exercises, later progressing
to functional strengthening exercises. All exercise
plans incorporate proprioception, balance, strength, flexibility, and endurance. Exercise equipment includes physioballs (shaped as rolls, peanuts, eggs, donuts
and balls), cavaletti poles, therapy band, rocker/wobble boards, and treadmills.Physical modality parameters are chosen based upon the acuity of the injury. They are used to prepare the tissues for additional therapy and can generally be applied by trained veterinary nurses. The most commonly used physical modalities include neuromuscular electrical stimulation, laser, therapeutic ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, and
  15. Rozanski EA, Hughes D, Scotti M, et al. The effect of heparin and fresh frozen plasma on plasma antithrombin III activity, prothrombin time and activated partial and thromboplastin time in critically ill dogs. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 2001;11:15-21.
16. Pernerstorfer T, Hollenstein U, Hansen J-B, et al. Heparin blunts endotoxin-in- duced coagulation activation. Circulation 1999;100:2485-2490.
17. Sakuragawa N, Hasegawa H, Maki M, et al. Clinical evaluation of low-molec- ular-weight heparin (FR-860) on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) - a multicenter co-operative double-blind trial in comparison with heparin. Thrombo- sis Research 1993;72:475-500.
18. Weitz JI. Low-molecular-weight heparins. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;337:688-699.
19. Prandoni P, Siragusa S, Girolami B, et al. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in medical patients treated with low-molecular-weight heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood 2005;106:3049-3054.
20. collaborators C-, Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011;377:1096-1101, 1101 e1091-1092.
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