Page 346 - WSAVA2018
P. 346

 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
WSV18-0178
NURSES (HILLS)
BEST PRACTICE FOR COLLECTION, TESTING AND UNDERSTANDING OF BLOOD RESULTS
T. Mothershaw1, M. O’Leary1, S. Crampton1, C. Harvey-Stevenson1
1Provet, airc, Brisbane, Australia
BEST PRACTICE FOR COLLECTION, TESTING AND UNDERSTANDING OF BLOOD RESULTS
Mik O’Leary BVSc, Carole Harvey-Stevenson
VN, VTS (ECC), DIP ECC, CERT IV WPA , TAYLOR MOTHERSHAW CERTIFICATE IV IN VETERINARY NURSING
Brisbane, Australia - tmothershaw@provet.com.au
Blood Collection
Blood collection is an important part of everyday veterinary practice. Many factors are taken into consideration when deciding where to withdraw the sample. This includes:
· Type of animal
· Size of animal
· Medical condition / site of injury
· Amount of blood to be collected
· Tests to be performed
· Experience of person taking sample
When taking a blood sample, the procedure should be performed in an aseptic manner. This includes:
· Clipping of site
· Preparation of site with surgical scrub solutions
· Washing hands
· Sterile needle and syringe
The sample should always be a ‘clean stick’, otherwise haemolysis of the sample will occur which may affect test results.
The aim when collecting blood is:
Preferred sites for blood collection
In small animal practice the jugular vein is often the preferred site for collection. However, if performing tests requiring only a small amount of blood –e.g. glucose, PCV / TPP, peripheral veins may be used.
    Canine
  Vena jugulars, vena saphena and vena cephalica for central venous blood. Edge of ear (close to base for peripheral blood smears
   Feline
  Same as dog but avoid saphenous and cephalic veins if at all possible
   Pocket Pets
   Tail vein, e.g. rats, ferrets, guinea pigs etc
   Avian
 Jugular vein, brachial artery (for large parrots), pedal artery (large water fowl)
   Equine
   Jugular vein
   Bovine
  Jugular vein, tail vein
   Collection site
  Suggested needle size*
  Cat and small dog cephalic or saphenous vein
  23-25G
  Cat and small dog jugular vein
    21-23G
  Medium to larger dog cephalic or saphenous vein
  21-23G
  Medium to larger dog jugular vein
    20-21G
  Horse jugular
   18G
 When transferring blood from the syringe to the tube
steps are taken to minimise damage to the cells:
· Remove needle from syringe so that blood is not transferred through a small bore
· Remove top from tube. This applies equally to a vacuum collection tube as to a screw-top tube unless specifically stated by the manufacture. Plunging a blood filled syringe + needle into a vacuum tube and allowing it to transfer into the vacuum tube increases the possibility of haemolysis
· Gently expel the blood into the angled tube so it dribble down the side
· Replace lid securely and (in an anti-coagulant tube) gently agitate to evenly mix chemicals with blood. Do this by slowly inverting the tube every 2-3 seconds for 30 seconds
Factors during the collection that can influence sample quality
 Factor
   How it may affect the sample
   Fear and stress of the animal Experience and capability of person collecting the sample
 Adrenalin release affecting glucose and some white cell count results.
 Preparation of the collection site
   Contamination of sample will give false results where sample is to be cultured.
   Time of day when sample is collected
 Some hormone levels vary throughout the day.
 Feeding before sample collection
   Will give a transient hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia.
   Using the correct tube for the required test
 Tubes are used for specific tests. E.g. blood in a Potassium EDTA tube will give a false potassium level.
 Actual site of collection
   Arterial gasses cannot be estimated from a venous sample.
 · To use a vein close to the surface of the body
· To be able to gently withdraw a suitable volume of
blood (to minimise damage to blood cells)
· To cause minimal disturbance and discomfort to the animal
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43RD WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND 9TH FASAVA CONGRESS





















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