Page 478 - WSAVA2018
P. 478

 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
WSV18-0121
ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY
TIBIAL PLATEAU ANGLE – HOW TO MEASURE IT & WHY YOU NEED TO ON YOUR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT PATIENTS
R. Palmer1
1Colorado State University, Clinical Science, Fort Collins, USA
I recommend measuring tibial plateau angles (TPA – Fig 1) on all patients prior to surgery regardless of the stabilizing procedure being perforrmed. Unpublished data have shown that the strain on the CrCL increases as the TPA increases (Hulse, DA, 2009). It is logical then that extracapsular sutures (“ExCap”) would be under progressively higher strain as the TPA increases. High strain upon the ExCap suture could increase the risk
of premature suture stretching or breakage. While one study showed that TPA did not affect the outcome of ExCap stabilization treatment, that study did not look at dogs with TPA > 34°. I currently recommend that ExCap suture stabilization be avoided in dogs when the TPA exceeds 30°.
WSV18-0162
VECCS
BACTERIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PYOTHORAX IN DOGS AND CATS
Y. Bruchim1
1Senior Lecturer of Veterinary Medicie,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Pyothorax is accumulation of exudates in the pleural cavity, also known as empyema. It is characterized by accumulation of purulent fluid due to bacterial or fungal contamination. Clinical signs of pyothorax are not specific and commonly include dyspnea, tachypnea, anorexia, pyrexia, and exercise intolerance. Duration of the clinical signs varied from 1-300 days, with a median of 33 days in cats and 40 days in dogs. Disease severity is influenced by the chronicity of the infectious. In order to facilitate establishment of treatment guidelines, the American Thoracic Society divides pleural infections into three stages: an exudative stage, fibropurulent stage, and organizational stage characterized by formation
of a pleural peel (scar tissue). Although numerous retrospective studies, case reports, have been published on the subject, no data exist on the actual incidence
of pyothorax in dogs and cats. Furthermore, the actual route of pleural infection often remains unknown with identification of an underlying cause reported in only 2–22% of dogs and 35–67% of cats. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, thoracic X-ray, US and CT-scan, fluid sampling, cytological evaluation and bacterial/fungal culture and sensitivity. Definitive diagnosis is based on cytology examination of pleural effusion or subsequent aerobic and anaerobic bacteria/fungal culture results.
The isolated bacteria vary and are influenced by the primary source of contamination. The etiology of pyothorax includes; penetrating wound, primary bacterial pneumonia that may progress to parapneumonic effusion; migrating foreign body, esophageal perforation and lung absces. In cats bite wound were considered as the most common cause of pyothorax with pasteurella contamination. A study evaluating the risk factors of
80 cats suffering from pyothorax, cats were 3.8 times more to live in a house load, but only 15% (20/128) had signs of bites. Another study of 27 cats with pyothorax
in Australia has revealed that 78% of the cases had mixed oropharingeal isolation including Pasteurella, Salmonella, and Mycoplasma Species in kittens. 56
% of the cats suffered from pneumonia indicating the parapneumonic spread may be more common in cats
as the source of the pleural contamination. Esophageal rupture may occur due to foreign body, neoplasia by Spirocerca lupi. The incidence of inhaled foreign bodies seems to vary depending on geographical location, climate, and vegetation, and the type of activity in which the dog is involved; hunting, working dogs or just dogs
    In order to properly position a patient for radiographic measurement of TPA, I advise heavy sedation or general anesthesia. The patient is the placed in lateral recumbency with the limb of interest in the ‘down position’. The radiographic objective is to obtain a PERFECT medio-lateral radiograph of the entire tibia, but with the radiographic beam centered upon the stifle. It is important that the hip, stifle and tarsus each be resting upon the same surface (or at least resting at the same level) in order to avoid rotating the tibial out of the perfect medio-lateral orientation, Next, the “up” leg is pulled forward via hip flexion – the movement of this limb in the sagittal plane will help preserve the perfect mediolateral position of the ‘down’ tibia. In contrast, abduction of the upper limb tends to pull the ‘down’ limb out of the perfect medio-lateral position. Finally, remember to center the radiographic beam upon the stifle, but collimate it to include the talus (Fig 1). When properly positioned, the radiograph should show the intercondylar tubercles of the proximal tibial (collectively referred to as the “tibial eminence”) arising from a “horizon” created by the superimposed medial and lateral tibial plateau surfaces.
  476
43RD WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND 9TH FASAVA CONGRESS










































































   476   477   478   479   480