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· Ponglowhapan S, Church D and Khalid M. Differences in the expression of lu- teinizing hormone and folliclestimulating hormone receptors in the lower urinary tract between intact and gonadecto- mised male and female dogs. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2008; 34: 339–351.
8. Pisu MC, Veronesi MC - Effectiveness of deslo- relin acetate subcutaneous implantation in a domestic queen with after-spaying urinary incon- tinence. J Feline Med Surg. 2014 Apr;16(4):366-8. doi: 10.1177/1098612X13498250. Epub 2013 Jul 19
Introduction
A variety of technologies purported to improve tissue healing or to reduce inflammation are available to the practitioners. There is considerable growth in the use
of therapeutic laser in the multimodal management
of the patients. The effects of laser protocols remain incompletely understood. Nevertheless, a considerable body of scientific evidence on the possible physiological mechanisms underlying such treatment is available. Such information should guide the indications and protocols for the use of therapeutic laser in practice.
Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Light by definition
is electromagnetic radiation which consists of both a waveform and of particles. Therapeutic laser or low-level light therapy, meaning the application of light energy in the red or near infrared spectrum to tissues, has been extensively studied. Instead, photobiomodulation better describes the medical interactions produced by the diversity of lasers currently available. The terminology employed in laser instrumentation is derived from these characteristics:
WSV18-0289
INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE (LECTURES GIVEN IN MANDARIN CHINESE)
APPLICATIONS OF THERAPEUTIC LASER IN YOUR DAILY PRACTICE
R. Koh1
1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, USA
2Veterinary Medical Center, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, USA
       · Photons: energy transmitted via light
· Wavelength: determines color and classification
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· Sunlight contains electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between approximately 100 nm and 1 mm. This is further subdivided into ultraviolet light (<400 nm), visible light (400-700 nm), and infrared (700 nm to 1 mm).
· Wavelength is the critical variable in determining laser penetration and tissue absorption.
· Hemoglobin and melanin are known to absorb energy (pho- tons) at wavelengths less than 600 nm. The absorbance of water increases at wavelengths greater than 1000 nm. There- fore, ideal wavelengths for ther- apy are between 600 and 1000 nm, with shorter wavelengths
43RD WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND 9TH FASAVA CONGRESS
of light energy; measured in nanometers (nm)











































































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