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References
1. Armburst LJ, Biller DS, Bamford A, Chun R, Garrett LD, Sanderson MW. Comparison of three-view thoracic radiography and computed tomography for detection of pulmonary nodules in dogs with neoplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;240:1088-1094.
2. Bibevski JD, Baye RM, Henrickson TD, Axlund TW. A prospective evaluation of CT in acutely paraparetic chondrodystrophic dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2013;49:363-369.
3. Schultz RM, Wisner ER, Johnson EG, MacLeod JS. Contrast enhanced com- puted tomography as a preoperative indicator of vascular invasion form adrenal masses in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:625-629.
4. Nelson NC, Nelson LL. Anatomy of extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs as determined by computed tomography angiography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;52:498-456.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
WSV18-0028
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TESTING FOR CANCER CASES
M. Day1
1University of Bristol, Bristol Veterinary School, Langford, United Kingdom
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR TESTING FOR CANCER CASES
Emeritus Professor Michael J. Day
BSc BVMS(Hons) PhD DSc DiplECVP FASM FRCPath FRCVS
Asia Veterinary Diagnostics, Kowloon, Hong Kong
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Western Australia
profmjday@gmail.comIntroduction
The basis for histopathological diagnosis and characterization of tumours has for many years been the evaluation of sections stained by haematoxylin
and eosin (HE) and examined by light microscopy. This procedure still remains the cornerstone for diagnosis and the starting stage for subsequent application of the techniques that will be described in this lecture. One major advance with routine HE microscopy has been the availability of slide digitization for computer-based analysis, which facilitates remote working by diagnostic pathologists and the ability to hold case discussions at a distance.
Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is defined as the use of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to detect and localize antigen within a tissue section. In contrast, immunocytochemistry (ICC) is the use of such reagents to detect and localize antigen within a cell monolayer. There are now numerous variations of procedures
for IHC based on using different tissue samples (fresh frozen or formalin-fixed), pre-treatment protocols (antigen retrieval and blocking steps) and detection reagents coupled to enzymes (for an enzyme–substrate reaction and colour change viewed by light microscopy) or fluorochromes (for emission of fluorescence
when excited by light of particular wavelength
under a fluorescence microscope). Details of these methodologies is beyond the scope of this presentation.
Immunohistochemistry (generally using immunoperoxidase enzyme–substrate based techniques) is now usually automated for high throughput and standardization between laboratories. Reagents are available for the detection of a wide range of structural or secreted molecules or the identification of infectious agents. The majority of reagents are broadly cross-
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