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WSVA8-0091
INFECTIOUS AND EMERGING DISEASES
ASIA SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANINE TICK- BORNE DISEASE BASED ON IN-CLINIC SNAP® 4DX® PLUS TEST RESULTS, 2013-2017
J. Braff1, L.W. Chang2, R. Chandrashekar1, J.S. Buch1
1IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Research and Development, Westbrook Maine, USA
2IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Marketing, Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
INTRODUCTION
Tick-borne diseases (TBD) are known to occur in dogs throughout Asia, and multi-analyte rapid tests are well suited to identify canine patients with antibodies to TBD-causing pathogens. Patients may be infected with multiple pathogens, and patterns of co-infection can be useful indicators of vector distribution and subsequent exposure risk for both canines and humans.
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess Asian geographic variation in the proportion of canine patients exposed to Ehrlichia spp. (EC), Anaplasma spp. (AP), and Borrelia burgdorferi (BB) and examine co-infection patterns between 2013 and 2017.
Your Singapore, the Tropical Garden City
WSVA8-0059
INFECTIOUS AND EMERGING DISEASES
EVALUATION OF RAPID SEROLOGICAL TESTS FOR EHRLICHIA CANIS
J. Liu1, W. Sukhumavasi2, J. Drexel1, D.D. Bowman3, R. Chandrashekar1
1IDEXX Laboratories- Inc., Assay R&D, Westbrook, USA
2Chulalongkorn University, Dept. of Pathology- Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangkok, Thailand
3Cornell University, Dept Micro & Immunol- CVM, Ithaca, USA
INTRODUCTION
Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are prevalent in South East Asia, transmit protozoal and bacterial pathogens in dogs. Of these pathogens, Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), is most frequently associated with marked clinical manifestations in dogs. Chronic infections are also common. Diagnosis of CME is generally accomplished by hematologic and serologic findings. Conventional serological tests include immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and ELISA. Rapid in- clinic tests are also commonly used in Asia, including SNAP® 4Dx® Plus (IDEXX) and Anigen CaniV-4 (BioNote). Their relative performance has not been validated.
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate SNAP 4Dx Plus and Anigen CaniV-4 for detection of antibodies to E. canis in dogs from Bangkok, Thailand.
METHODS
Client-owned dogs were brought for a spay-neuter program and blood parasite diagnosis through mobile veterinary academic services. The remaining plasma samples from the program stored frozen were used. Majority of the dogs had access to outdoors and had evidence for tick or flea infestation. E. canis IFA testing was performed by a commercial reference laboratory. A total of 57 positive (IFA titer ≥ 1:100) and 41 negative samples were included in this study. Samples were blinded and randomized for testing with rapid in-clinic tests, according to manufacturers’ instructions.
RESULTS
Compared to E. canis IFA, sensitivity/specificity was 94.7%/100% for 4Dx Plus, 63.2%/100% for CaniV-4.
CONCLUSIONS
This study revealed significant performance differences between the two in-clinic tests. The 4Dx Plus test may be better suited for rapid and accurate diagnosis of E. canis infection in this region.
    METHODS
TBD antibody test results were obtained from an international database of in-clinic SNAP® 4Dx® Plus Test results. Eleven countries representing at least 122 reporting locations were included.
RESULTS
Table 1. TBD seropositive results by country.
 Country
 Test Count
   AP Pos,% (95% CI)
  EC Pos,% (95% CI)
 BB Pos,% (95% CI)
 Co Pos,% (95% CI)
  China
  390
  6.4(4.2-9.3)
   6.9(4.6-9.9)
  1.0(0.3-2.6)
  3.1(1.6-5.3)
   Hong Kong
25,466
  3.5(3.3-3.7)
 7.2(6.9-7.5)
0.4(0.3-0.4)
  1.7(1.6-1.9)
  India
  1,645
  23.0(21.0-25.1)
   51.9(49.5-54.4)
  0.6(0.3-1.1)
  11.8(10.3-13.5)
   Japan
122
  1.6(0.2-5.8)
 0.8(0.0-4.5)
0.0(0.0-3.0)
  0.0(0.0-3.0)
 Malaysia
 4,733
 17.2(16.2-18.3)
  32.6(31.3-34.0)
 0.5(0.3-0.8)
 10.3(9.5-11.2)
  Myanmar
  433
  4.6(2.8-7.0)
   12.2(9.3-15.7)
  0.2(0.0-1.3)
  0.7(0.1-2.0)
   Philippines
525
  25.7(22.0-29.7)
 53.5(49.2-57.9)
0.8(0.2-1.9)
  16.0(13.0-19.4)
  Singapore
  15,885
  3.5(3.2-3.8)
   9.5(9.1-10.0)
  0.3(0.2-0.4)
  1.6(1.4-1.8)
   South Korea
6,447
  3.0(2.6-3.4)
 2.9(2.5-3.3)
0.8(0.6-1.0)
  0.7(0.5-0.9)
  Taiwan
  120,212
  3.2(3.1-3.3)
   7.4(7.3-7.6)
  0.2(0.2-0.3)
  1.1(1.1-1.2)
   Thailand
14,647
  29.9(29.2-30.7)
 61.2(60.4-62.0)
0.3(0.2-0.4)
  22.2(21.6-22.9)
  TOTAL
  190,505
  5.9(5.8-6.0)
   12.7(12.5-12.8)
  0.3(0.3-0.3)
  3.2(3.1-3.3)
   CONCLUSIONS
This study shows that exposure to TBD is common in dogs throughout Asia. In cases of co-infection, patients most often had antibodies to both AP and EC.
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