Page 92 - WSAVA2018
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 25-28 September, 2018 | Singapore
is self-cleaning (no yearly maintenance costs). Heron predation is minimized. The negatives are the equipment and installation cost double that of the first and a more formalized appearance. Most large ponds of 50,000 gallons (200,000l.) or more are of the first type. They tend to have a low stocking density. Circulation and gas exchange remain important nevertheless. This is often accomplished via fountains or wetlands filters.
The process of gas exchange is critical and is assured by air diffusers and stones, waterfalls and spillways, surface skimmers, fountains, venturis and pond deicers. Water temperature is moderated by ambient air temperature (poor control), via a greenhouse, which is better, but still variable and with heaters. Mechanical filtration occurs through sedimentation (no filter), via Internal box filter (submersed near the pond bottom), external box filter (outside the pond), prefilter solids separator, either with a sedimentation chamber (vortex) or via a pressurized unit or a pressurized canister filter, of either downflow design (may contain sand, pebbles or plastic media) or upflow design, with floating bead filters. As to biological filtration, these can be independent units, but most are combined with mechanical filtration. It is important to always identify the biological portion of the filter. Concerning circulation are the mechanism, pattern and standard parameters to know. As to the mechanism, active circulation is created via pumps (either external or submersible), fountains and air lift via a bubbler. These last two methods interfere with the settlement of suspended solids and are less desirable when filter systems are used. Circulation can also be passive, where a pond deicer is used in winter. This method creates a vertical circulation, so should
be placed directly over where the fish congregate
and should not be combined with any other circulation mechanism. The parameters to know are the flow rate, which is described as the “turnover time”. It is the system volume divided by the true output of the pump. This is the advertised output minus loss due to total dynamic head (discharge height + pipe friction). It is important
to determine the true output (GPH) by examining the return(s). For warm season flow, the rate in shallow ponds should be 1⁄2- 1 hr., in deep ponds, 1-2 hrs. In winter, the turnover time should not be less than 10 hrs. As to the circulation frequency, it should be continuous.
WSV18-0196
SVA INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE & ACUPUNCTURE
USE OF ACUPUNCTURE POINTS IN EMERGENCIES
S.H. Oh1
1Animal Ark, TCM, Singapore, Singapore
USE OF ACUPUNCTURE POINTS IN EMERGENCIES Introduction
Animal emergencies can be life-threatening and require immediate treatment or attention.
Objective
In extremely serious cases, the objective is to quickly resuscitate the animal or bring it away from danger.
Methods
One can consider the use of acupuncture at various acupuncture points in an emergency on a case-by-case basis.
Results
In most emergency cases, animals respond well to the emergency treatment via acupuncture.
Conclusion
The examples show that acupuncture can be very effective during emergency situations and is safe when used in the correct manner.
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43RD WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND 9TH FASAVA CONGRESS












































































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